Skip to main content

Limitations in Translating Animal Studies to Humans in Cardiovascular Disease

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Goodman J, Chandna A, and Roe K. Trends in animal use at US research facilities. J Med Ethics doi:10.1136/medethics-2014-102404

  2. 2.

    Laboratory Animals – Species in Research. National Association of Biomedical Research 2014.

  3. 3.

    Pfeffer, J., & Pfeffer, M. (1988). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and ventricular remodeling in heart failure. American Journal of Medicine, 84(3), 37–44.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Pfeffer, M., Braunwald, E., Moye, L., Basta, L., Brown, E., et al. (1992). Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction—results of the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement Trial. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 669–677.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Von Lueder, T., Wang, B., Kompa, A., et al. (2015). Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction by reducing cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Circulation Heart Failure, 8, 71–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    No authors listed (2013). Of Men, Not Mice. Nature Medicine, 19(4), 379. doi:10.1038/nm.3163.

  7. 7.

    Sawinski, D., & Maltzman, J. S. (2015). Do mice need an order of fries to be relevant for transplant studies? American Journal of Transplantation, 15, 2282–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    McNally, E., Kraft, R., Bravo-Zehnder, M., Taylor, D., & Leinwand, L. (1989). Full-length rat alpha and beta cardiac myosin heavy chain sequences: comparisons suggest a molecular basis for functional differences. Journal of Molecular Biology, 210(3), 665–71.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Milani-Nejad, N., & Janssen, M. (2014). Small and large animal models in cardiac contraction research: advantages and disadvantages. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 141(3), 235–49.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Collins, F., & Varmus, H. (2015). A new initiative on precision medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 793–795.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Mak, I., Evaniew, N., & Ghert, M. (2014). Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment. American Journal of Translational Research, 6(2), 114–118.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sean Lal.

Additional information

Editor-in-Chief Jennifer L. Hall oversaw the review of this article

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lal, S., Li, A. & dos Remedios, C. Limitations in Translating Animal Studies to Humans in Cardiovascular Disease. J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. 9, 165–166 (2016).

Download citation


  • Translational Knowledge
  • Orthotopic Heart Transplantation
  • Allograft Tolerance
  • Human Heart Tissue
  • Human Cardiac Tissue