Skip to main content
Log in

Monitoring the Activity of Astrocytes in Learning and Memory

  • Research Highlight
  • Published:
Neuroscience Bulletin Aims and scope Submit manuscript

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1


  1. Maren S, Quirk GJ. Neuronal signalling of fear memory. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004, 5: 844–852.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Lisman J, Cooper K, Sehgal M, Silva AJ. Memory formation depends on both synapse-specific modifications of synaptic strength and cell-specific increases in excitability. Nat Neurosci 2018, 21: 309–314.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Santello M, Toni N, Volterra A. Astrocyte function from information processing to cognition and cognitive impairment. Nat Neurosci 2019, 22: 154–166.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Nam MH, Han KS, Lee J, Won W, Koh W, Bae JY. Activation of astrocytic μ-opioid receptor causes conditioned place preference. Cell Rep 2019, 28: 1154-1166.e5.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Mederos S, Sánchez-Puelles C, Esparza J, Valero M, Ponomarenko A, Perea G. GABAergic signaling to astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex sustains goal-directed behaviors. Nat Neurosci 2021, 24: 82–92.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Suzuki A, Stern SA, Bozdagi O, Huntley GW, Walker RH, Magistretti PJ, et al. Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation. Cell 2011, 144: 810–823.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Adamsky A, Kol A, Kreisel T, Doron A, Ozeri-Engelhard N, Melcer T, et al. Astrocytic activation generates de novo neuronal potentiation and memory enhancement. Cell 2018, 174: 59-71.e14.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Kol A, Adamsky A, Groysman M, Kreisel T, London M, Goshen I. Astrocytes contribute to remote memory formation by modulating hippocampal-cortical communication during learning. Nat Neurosci 2020, 23: 1229–1239.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Li YL, Li LX, Wu JT, Zhu ZG, Feng X, Qin LM, et al. Activation of astrocytes in hippocampus decreases fear memory through adenosine A 1 receptors. eLife 2020, 9: e57155.

  10. Pabst M, Braganza O, Dannenberg H, Hu W, Pothmann L, Rosen J, et al. Astrocyte intermediaries of septal cholinergic modulation in the hippocampus. Neuron 2016, 90: 853–865.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Oe Y, Wang XW, Patriarchi T, Konno A, Ozawa K, Yahagi K, et al. Distinct temporal integration of noradrenaline signaling by astrocytic second messengers during vigilance. Nat Commun 2020, 11: 471.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Zhang K, Förster R, He WJ, Liao X, Li J, Yang CY, et al. Fear learning induces α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated astrocytic responsiveness that is required for memory persistence. Nat Neurosci 2021, 24: 1686–1698.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Guo W, Robert B, Polley DB. The cholinergic basal forebrain links auditory stimuli with delayed reinforcement to support learning. Neuron 2019, 103: 1164-1177.e6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Liu JH, Zhang M, Wang Q, Wu DY, Jie W, Hu NY, et al. Distinct roles of astroglia and neurons in synaptic plasticity and memory. Mol Psychiatry 2022, 27: 873–885.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Hu NY, Chen YT, Wang Q, Jie W, Liu YS, You QL, et al. Expression patterns of inducible cre recombinase driven by differential astrocyte-specific promoters in transgenic mouse lines. Neurosci Bull 2020, 36: 530–544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Letzkus JJ, Wolff SBE, Meyer EMM, Tovote P, Courtin J, Herry C, et al. A disinhibitory microcircuit for associative fear learning in the auditory cortex. Nature 2011, 480: 331–335.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kim CK, Adhikari A, Deisseroth K. Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 2017, 18: 222–235.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Martin-Fernandez M, Jamison S, Robin LM, Zhao Z, Martin ED, Aguilar J, et al. Synapse-specific astrocyte gating of amygdala-related behavior. Nat Neurosci 2017, 20: 1540–1548.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Koukouli F, Changeux JP. Do nicotinic receptors modulate high-order cognitive processing? Trends Neurosci 2020, 43: 550–564.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Sara SJ. The locus coeruleus and noradrenergic modulation of cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009, 10: 211–223.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This Research Highlight was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China (2021ZD0202704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31830033, 82090032), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT_16R37), the Key Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2018B030334001, 2018B030340001), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2020A1515110565), and the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou (202007030013).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tian-Ming Gao.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wu, JL., Gao, TM. Monitoring the Activity of Astrocytes in Learning and Memory. Neurosci. Bull. 38, 1117–1120 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: