Skip to main content

Modulation of Predator Cue-Evoked Tonic Immobility by Acetylcholine Released in the Basolateral Complex of the Amygdala

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Kozlowska K, Walker P, McLean L, Carrive P. Fear and the defense cascade: Clinical implications and management. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2015, 23: 263–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Yilmaz M, Meister M. Rapid innate defensive responses of mice to looming visual stimuli. Curr Biol 2013, 23: 2011–2015.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Wei PF, Liu N, Zhang ZJ, Liu XM, Tang YQ, He XB. Processing of visually evoked innate fear by a non-canonical thalamic pathway. Nat Commun 2015, 6: 6756.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Shang CP, Chen ZJ, Liu AX, Li Y, Zhang JJ, Qu BL, et al. Divergent midbrain circuits orchestrate escape and freezing responses to looming stimuli in mice. Nat Commun 2018, 9: 1232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gross CT, Canteras NS. The many paths to fear. Nat Rev Neurosci 2012, 13: 651–658.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Egorov AV, Unsicker K, von Bohlenund Halbach O. Muscarinic control of graded persistent activity in lateral amygdala neurons. Eur J Neurosci 2006, 24: 3183–3194.

  7. 7.

    Unal CT, Pare D, Zaborszky L. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons. J Neurosci 2015, 35: 853–863.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Jing M, Li YX, Zeng JZ, Huang PC, Skirzewski M, Kljakic O, et al. An optimized acetylcholine sensor for monitoring in vivo cholinergic activity. Nat Methods 2020, 17: 1139–1146.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Likhtik E, Stujenske JM, Topiwala MA, Harris AZ, Gordon JA. Prefrontal entrainment of amygdala activity signals safety in learned fear and innate anxiety. Nat Neurosci 2014, 17: 106–113.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Egorov AV, Hamam BN, Fransén E, Hasselmo ME, Alonso AA. Graded persistent activity in entorhinal cortex neurons. Nature 2002, 420: 173–178.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Fransén E, Tahvildari B, Egorov AV, Hasselmo ME, Alonso AA. Mechanism of graded persistent cellular activity of entorhinal cortex layer v neurons. Neuron 2006, 49: 735–746.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Wilson MA, Fadel JR. Cholinergic regulation of fear learning and extinction. J Neurosci Res 2017, 95: 836–852.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Guo YC, Yuan TF, Guo BY. The secret of fear memory attenuation: Facing fears. Neurosci Bull 2019, 35: 775–777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Khaziev E, Samigullin D, Zhilyakov N, Fatikhov N, Bukharaeva E, Verkhratsky A, et al. Acetylcholine-induced inhibition of presynaptic calcium signals and transmitter release in the frog neuromuscular junction. Front Physiol 2016, 7: 621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Picciotto MR, Higley MJ, Mineur YS. Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: Cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior. Neuron 2012, 76: 116–129.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported in part by the Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2018B030331001 and 2018B030338001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31600860, 31630031, 31930047, and 91732304), the International Partnership Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (172644KYS820170004), the Key Laboratory of the CAS (2019DP173024), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Science (XDB32030100), the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Behavior (2017B030301017), the Ten Thousand Talent Program, the Chang Jiang Scholars Program, the Guangdong Special Support Program, the Guangdong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (2018A030313439), the Helmholtz-CAS joint research grant (GJHZ1508), the Shenzhen Government Basic Research Grants (JCYJ20170413164535041), and the Shenzhen Key Science and Technology Infrastructure Planning Project (ZDKJ20190204002). We would like to thank Dr. Yulong Li of Peking University for providing the GRabeen ACh3.0 plasmid.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Liping Wang.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors claim no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file2 (WMV 4470 KB)

Supplementary file3 (WMV 5914 KB)

Supplementary file1 (PDF 985 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, N., Huang, K., Wei, P. et al. Modulation of Predator Cue-Evoked Tonic Immobility by Acetylcholine Released in the Basolateral Complex of the Amygdala. Neurosci. Bull. 37, 1599–1604 (2021).

Download citation