Norepinephrine from the Locus Coeruleus Regulates Microglia Dynamics During Wakefulness

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 2005, 308: 1314–1318.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Davalos D, Grutzendler J, Yang G, Kim JV, Zuo Y, Jung S, et al. ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo. Nat Neurosci 2005, 8: 752–758.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Stowell RD, Sipe GO, Dawes RP, Batchelor HN, Lordy KA, Whitelaw BS, et al. Noradrenergic signaling in the wakeful state inhibits microglial surveillance and synaptic plasticity in the mouse visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 2019, 22: 1782–1792.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Liu YU, Ying Y, Li Y, Eyo UB, Chen T, Zheng J, et al. Neuronal network activity controls microglial process surveillance in awake mice via norepinephrine signaling. Nat Neurosci 2019, 22: 1771–1781.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Zhang Y, Chen K, Sloan SA, Bennett ML, Scholze AR, O’Keeffe S, et al. An RNA-sequencing transcriptome and splicing database of glia, neurons, and vascular cells of the cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 2014, 34: 11929–11947.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gyoneva S, Traynelis SF. Norepinephrine modulates the motility of resting and activated microglia via different adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem 2013, 288: 15291–15302.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Wu Y, Dissing-Olesen L, MacVicar BA, Stevens B. Microglia: dynamic mediators of synapse development and plasticity. Trends Immunol 2015, 36: 605–613.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Pocock JM, Kettenmann H. Neurotransmitter receptors on microglia. Trends Neurosci 2007, 30: 527–535.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Heneka MT, Nadrigny F, Regen T, Martinez-Hernandez A, Dumitrescu-Ozimek L, Terwel D, et al. Locus ceruleus controls Alzheimer’s disease pathology by modulating microglial functions through norepinephrine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010, 107: 6058–6063.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kvetnansky R, Sabban EL, Palkovits M. Catecholaminergic systems in stress: structural and molecular genetic approaches. Physiol Rev 2009, 89: 535–606.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31671057) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019FZA7009).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhihua Gao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hu, Y., Shi, P. & Gao, Z. Norepinephrine from the Locus Coeruleus Regulates Microglia Dynamics During Wakefulness. Neurosci. Bull. 36, 554–556 (2020).

Download citation