Sleep Disturbance: An Early Sign of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. The accumulation of insoluble forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) in plaques in extracellular spaces and the aggregation of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau in neurofibrillary tangles in neurons are considered to be central pathological features of AD [1, 2]. Before the cognitive symptoms and pathological signs are present, preclinical synaptic and neuronal injury begins to occur, and this continues for 10–20 years. Currently, one focus of AD research is to discern the preclinical stage of AD, when Aβ deposition has begun to occur but before clear cognitive impairment, as well as to develop therapeutic interventions at this stage to prevent AD progression .
Sleep disturbance is recognized as a common and often highly disruptive behavioral symptom associated with AD. It has been reported that Aβ deposition pathology itself can alter sleep architecture [
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