Age-Related Reduction in Cortical Thickness in First-Episode Treatment-Naïve Patients with Schizophrenia
- 44 Downloads
Substantial evidence supports the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Meanwhile, progressive neurodegenerative processes have also been reported, leading to the hypothesis that neurodegeneration is a characteristic component in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. However, a major challenge for the neurodegenerative hypothesis is that antipsychotic drugs used by patients have profound impact on brain structures. To clarify this potential confounding factor, we measured the cortical thickness across the whole brain using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 145 first-episode and treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 147 healthy controls. The results showed that, in the patient group, the frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate gyri displayed a significant age-related reduction of cortical thickness. In the control group, age-related cortical thickness reduction was mostly located in the frontal, temporal, and cingulate gyri, albeit to a lesser extent. Importantly, relative to healthy controls, patients exhibited a significantly smaller age-related cortical thickness in the anterior cingulate, inferior temporal, and insular gyri in the right hemisphere. These results provide evidence supporting the existence of neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia and suggest that these processes already occur in the early stage of the illness.
KeywordsSchizophrenia Cortical thickness Age-related
This work was supported by the National Basic Research Development Program of China (2016YFC0904300), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81630030, 81130024 and 81528008), the National Natural Science Foundation of China/Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme (81461168029), and the “135” Project for Disciplines of Excellence, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China (ZY2016103 and ZY2016203).
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 28.Ebdrup BH, Skimminge A, Rasmussen H, Aggernaes B, Oranje B, Lublin H, et al. Progressive striatal and hippocampal volume loss in initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine: relationship to dose and symptoms. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2011, 14: 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Jessen K, Rostrup E, Mandl RCW, Nielsen MO, Bak N, Fagerlund B, et al. Cortical structures and their clinical correlates in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients before and after 6 weeks of dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist treatment. Psychol Med 2018: 1–10.Google Scholar
- 37.First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I & Axis II Disorders (Version 2.0). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1995.Google Scholar
- 39.Morosini PL, Magliano L, Brambilla L, Ugolini S, Pioli R. Development, reliability and acceptability of a new version of the DSM-IV Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) to assess routine social functioning. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000, 101: 323–329.Google Scholar
- 44.Dale AM, Fischl B, Sereno MI. Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction. Neuroimage 1999, 9: 179–194.Google Scholar
- 50.Kong L, Herold CJ, Zollner F, Salat DH, Lasser MM, Schmid LA, et al. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature. Psychiatry Res 2015, 231: 176–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Ebdrup BH, Norbak H, Borgwardt S, Glenthoj B. Volumetric changes in the basal ganglia after antipsychotic monotherapy: a systematic review. Curr Med Chem 2013, 20: 438–447.Google Scholar