Patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS) are susceptible to recurrence after complete stone removal with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Our study aims to analyze the potential risk factors for the recurrence of choledocholithiasis after endoscopic treatment. From January 2016 to January 2018, a total of 315 eligible patients who underwent ERCP at Nantong First People’s Hospital were evaluated and followed up. The clinical data recorded in this study included general characteristics, medical history, ERCP-related factors, CBDS-related factors, and laboratory/imaging indicators. The patients were divided into a recurrence group and a nonrecurrence group, and then, logistic regression analysis and Kaplan–Meier analysis were used to identify the risk factors for stone recurrence after ERCP. CBDS recurred after ERCP in 48 patients (15.24%). The data from the recurrence group and nonrecurrence group showed significant differences in age, common bile duct diameter (≥ 15 mm), number of stones (≥ 2), periampullary diverticulum (PAD), history of biliary surgery, bile duct stenosis, and duodenal papillary stenosis (p < 0.05). Patients with the following risk factors were found to be more susceptible to recurrence after ERCP treatment: wider common bile duct, multiple stones, PAD, biliary surgery history, bile duct stricture, and duodenal papilla stenosis.