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Table 1 Summary of the cases reported on mesenteric ischemia in COVID-19 patients

From: Review of Mesenteric Ischemia in COVID-19 Patients

Reference Age/sex/clinical features/comorbidities Imaging Intervention/anticoagulation Outcome
Cheung et al. [6] 55/M
Loose stools and pain abdomen
CT angiogram abdomen- SMA thrombosis 1.6 cm Laparotomy + resection anastomosis and SMA Thromboembolectomy Not reported
Karna et al. [9] 61/F
Diffuse abdominal pain with distention, feculent vomiting
Diabetes and hypertension
Ct abdomen- distal SMA thrombosis Laparotomy resection of gangrenous bowel and resection of gangrenous bowel and loop ileostomy/unfractionated heparin with ecosprin and clopidogrel Expired
Ucpinar et al. [19] 82/F
Not available
Atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension
Not available Anticoagulation with enoxaparin Expired
Khesrani et al. [20] 9/F
Vomiting and diarrhea
Idiopathic medullar aplasia
Not available Laparotomy with Resection of the ischemic loop with double ileostomy Expired
Norsa et al. [21] 62/M
Abdominal pain and bilious vomiting
Hypertension, obesity, liver cirrhosis
Small bowel ischemia; thromboemboli filling defects in inferior vena cava and superior mesenteric vein Laparotomy with small intestine resection Expired
Bhayana et al. [13] 47/M
Abdominal pain abdominal tenderness
Not available
Pneumatosis intestinalis with non-enhancing bowel Laparotomy Not available
Abdominal pain
Not available
Nonspecific finding suggestive of early ischemia or infection Laparotomy Expired
Rodriguez et al. [22] 45/M
Severe gastric pain, nausea and diaphoresis
Abdominal CT—SMA of likely thrombotic etiology with partial rechanneling through the middle colic artery Exploratory laparotomy with intestinal resection with entero-enteral anastomosis/
Atkomakyan et al. [23] 62/M
Not available
Diabetes, hypertension
Not available Laparotomy Not available
Levolger et al. [24] 58/M
Dyspnea and abdominal pain with abdominal distention
Abdominal portal venous–computed tomography imaging- non-significant stenosing soft plaque was present in the proximal superior mesenteric artery Laparotomy with partial small bowel resection Not available
Thuluva SK et al. [25] 29/M
Left-sided colicky abdominal pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite
A long-segment filling defect was demonstrated in the superior mesenteric vein Enoxaparin Alive
Lari et al. [26] 38/M
Abdominal pain, nausea, intractable vomiting
Thrombosis of the portal, splenic, superior and inferior mesenteric veins, mid-portion of the small bowel was suggestive of venous ischemia Laparotomy with resection of the diseased segment with temporary abdominal closure Not available
Singh et al. [27] 82/F
Abdominal distensions
Hypertension, diabetes
Heparin infusion
De Roquetaillade et al. [28] 65/F
Not available
Not available Laparotomy Expired
Sehhat et al. [29] 77/M
Not available
Not available Laparotomy Expired
A Beccara et al. [30] 52/M
Vomiting and abdominal pain
Arterial thrombosis of vessels efferent of the superior mesenteric artery with bowel distension Intestinal resection with stapled side-to side anastomosis/LMWH plus aspirin Alive
Ignat et al. [31] 28/F
Abdominal pain and vomiting, abdominal guarding
Superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis and no sign of ischemia, segmental small bowel ischemia Laparotomy with Bowel resection and temporary laparostomy Alive
Not available
Diabetes, hypertension, obesity
Ischemia of the first bowel loop, with mesenteric venous gas Bowel resection and laparostomy Alive
Not available
Chronic bronchitis, diabetes, and cardiac transplantation
Inflammatory segmental ileitis with a localized thickening of 1 small bowel loop and edema Conservative Expired
Farina et al. [32] 70/M
Abdominal pain, nausea, diffuse abdominal tenderness
Contrast-enhanced CT abdomen- SMA thrombosis Conservative/medical treatment Expired
Azouz et al. [33] 56/M
abdominal pain and vomiting
Contrast-enhanced CT abdomen- SMA thrombosis Endovascular thrombectomy and laparotomy with the resection Alive
Vulliamy et al. [34] 75/M
Abdominal pain and vomiting
CT angiography- intraluminal thrombus in the descending thoracic aorta with embolic occlusion of the SMA Catheter-directed thrombolysis with Laparotomy with resection Not available
Bianco et al. [35] 59/M
Acute abdominal pain with nausea
Air fuid levels in the small bowel with associated mesenteric edema and peritoneal free fuid Laparotomy with small bowel resection and side-to-side manual anastomosis Expired
Do Carmo Filho et al. [36] 33/M
Presented severe hypogastric pain without abdominal distension and/or signs of peritonitis
A luminal density diffusely reduced in relation to the splenic vein, suggestive of venous thrombosis Thrombolytics Alive
Mitchell et al. [37] 69/M
Mid-epigastric pain, constipation, and eructation
Computed tomography angiogram-thrombus in proximal segment of SMA Small bowel resection and superior mesenteric artery thromboembolectomy Alive
English et al. [38] 40/M
Abdominal distension
CT abdomen- hypoperfusion of distal small bowel with intramural gas Damage control Laparotomy with resection with abdominal wall closure and stoma formation/unfractionated heparin Alive
De Barry et al. [39] 79/F
Abdominal pain- epigastric, diarrhea
CT abdomen- right-portal vein thrombosis, proximal thrombosis of the upper mesenteric artery and jejunal artery Laparotomy/thrombolysis and thrombectomy of the upper mesenteric artery Expired
Kraft et al. [40] 62/F
Not available
Not available Laparotomy Alive
Besutti et al. [41] 72/M
Severe abdominal pain
Small bowel ischemia associated with massive splenic infarction Resection with splenectomy/heparin in continuous infusion Alive
Sehhat et al. [29] 77/M
Not available
NA Laparotomy Expired
Krothapalli et al. [17] 76/F
Abdominal distension, respiratory distress
Coronary artery disease
CT angiography abdomen: thrombus in celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery Conservative, apixababan Expired
Kielty J et al. [42] 47/M
Distended abdomen, associated diarrhea
Anxiety, obstructive sleep apnea
CECT abdomen- widespread pneumatosis, mesenteric free air and portal venous gas Unfractionated heparin infusion Alive
Pang JHQ et al. [43] 30/M
Colicky abdominal pain, vomiting
CT abdomen- SMA thrombosis Exploratory laparotomy with resection of small bowel stricture with primary anastomosis/enoxaparin Alive
Dixon Osilli et al. [44] 75/M
Abdominal pain
Hypertension, diverticular disease
CECT abdomen- SMA thrombosis IV heparin infusion/catheter-directed thrombolysis of the SMA/exploratory laparotomy with resection with anastomosis of the bowel ends Not available