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SELSI Consensus Statement for Safe Cholecystectomy — Prevention and Management of Bile Duct Injury — Part A

Abstract

Cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical operations performed worldwide. The risk of bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is two to three times higher than during open cholecystectomy. The worldwide incidence of bile duct injury is 0.5% or 1 in 200 cases. BDI and its consequences result in significant morbidity and may even cause mortality; it also increases the cost of treatment and can be a common reason for medico-legal suits against the surgeons. To minimize the incidence of BDI and to manage it timely and appropriately, a set of guidelines was deemed necessary by a group of senior surgeons during a Society of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of India (SELSI) meeting in 2016. Guidelines for “Safe Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy” and bile duct injury management formulated by other international societies are already available. The applicability of these guidelines to Indian subjects, especially in small peripheral centers, was limited. Hence, a decision was taken to form a set of guidelines for general surgeons with basic laparoscopic skills with little or no advanced laparoscopic skills. Those working in a solo practice, nursing homes, and small private hospitals at talukas or districts should have “Safe Cholecystectomy” guidelines and management of BDI suitable to their situation. These guidelines were formed after three consensus meetings and have been approved by a SELSI Expert Group.

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Abbreviations

AIDS:

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

ALP:

Alkaline phosphatase

ASA:

American Society of Anesthesiologists

BDI:

Bile duct injury

BMI:

Body mass index

CBD:

Common bile duct

CECT:

Contrast enhanced computerized tomography

CHA:

Chronic hemolytic anemia

CHD:

Common hepatic duct

COPD:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CVS:

Critical view of safety

DLC:

Delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy

EAES:

European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons

EBF:

External biliary fistula

ELC:

Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy

ERCP:

Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography

ESE:

Endoscopic papillotomy and stone extraction

FNAC:

Fine needle aspiration cytology

GB:

Gallbladder

HIDA:

Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan

HIV:

Human immune deficiency virus

IHBRD:

Intrahepatic biliary radical dilatation

IOC:

Intraoperative cholangiogram

IRCAD:

L’Institut de Recherchecontre les Cancers de l'AppareilDigestif

KFT:

Kidney function test

LC:

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

LCBDE:

Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration

LFT:

Liver function test

LMWH:

Low molecular weight heparin

LOE:

Level of evidence

MRC:

Magnetic resonance cholangiogram

MRCP:

Magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography

MS:

Mirizzi's syndrome

OC:

Open cholecystectomy

OHA:

Oral hypoglycemic agents

SAGES:

Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

SELSI:

Society of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of India

SCD:

Sickle cell disease

TLC:

Total leucocyte count

WBC:

White blood cell

USG:

Ultrasonography

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Correspondence to Virinder Kumar Bansal.

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This consensus statement is for general guidance only; the recommendations made in this statement do not cover all situations and scenarios and may be modified depending upon the infrastructure and the expertise available in a given situation.

Note

The term common bile duct (CBD) has been used in these guidelines. At most places, it means and includes common hepatic duct (CHD) also.

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Bansal, V.K., Misra, M., Agarwal, A.K. et al. SELSI Consensus Statement for Safe Cholecystectomy — Prevention and Management of Bile Duct Injury — Part A. Indian J Surg 83 (Suppl 3), 592–610 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12262-019-01993-2

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Keywords

  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  • Bile duct injury
  • Guidelines for safe cholecystectomy
  • Prevention