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Major Liver Resection for Large and Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Optimal management of large and locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a clinical challenge especially in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We present our experience of major liver resection for large and locally advanced HCC. Prospectively collected data of patients with large and locally advanced HCC who underwent major liver resection between March 2011 and May 2015. The outcome measures of interest were the characteristics of tumor, surgical outcome, and overall as well as disease-free survival. Eighteen patients (14 male) with median age of 59 years (20 to 73 years) with good performance status underwent resection. Fifteen patients were in Child Pugh class A and three in class B. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan, four patients had lobar/segmental portal vein involvement, two patients had bilobar disease, and one had biliary obstruction. Seven patients underwent extended resection (>5 segments), five right hepatectomy, two modified right hepatectomy, one modified right hepatectomy with wedge resection of segment six, two left hepatectomy, and one left lateral sectionectomy. On histopathology, 12 were solitary and six were multiple, the median tumor diameter was 9 cm (5–18 cm). All 18 patients had R0 resection. Eight patients had cirrhosis, six had fibrosis, and four had chronic hepatitis. Vascular invasion was noticed in 12 and out of these, six had large-vessel embolization. Morbidity according to Clavien-Dindo class was grades 1–11, grades 2–5, grade 3B-1, and grades 5–1. After a median follow-up of 32 months (6–54 months), the overall survival at 1 and 3 years was 83 and 54 %, respectively. The disease-free survival at 1 and 3 years was 75 and 54 % respectively. In carefully selected patients with large and locally advanced HCC, acceptable perioperative and medium term outcomes can be achieved with major liver resection.

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Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer




Chronic liver disease


Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography


Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group


Hepatocellular carcinoma


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Correspondence to Viniyendra Pamecha.

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Pamecha, V., Sasturkar, S.V., Sinha, P.K. et al. Major Liver Resection for Large and Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Indian J Surg 79, 326–331 (2017).

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