Indian Journal of Surgery

, Volume 77, Supplement 3, pp 816–821 | Cite as

Microfoam Sclerotherapy for Varicose Veins: a Retrospective Analysis of a Modified Technique

  • N. RadhakrishnanEmail author
  • R. Jayakrishnan
  • G. Deepu
Original Article


Varicose veins (VVs) are generally characterized by their elongated, twisted, bulging, superficial appearance on the lower extremities and usually present with acute or chronic venous diseases. Despite diagnostic and surgical advances in the management of VV, patients suffer from post-therapeutic complications and recurrence. We present findings from a retrospective study of a modified treatment modality in patients with varicose veins who attended St. Thomas Institute of Research on Venous Diseases, Changanassery, Kerala. The hospital caters to patients from India and outside. Out of 14,707 patients treated from 1997 till May 2013, 6,350 patients from January to March 2011 were selected for the study from the routine clinical practice (mid-segment) to facilitate follow-up. They were categorized according to Clinical Etiologic Anatomic Pathophysiologic (CEAP) clinical classification system. Baseline data were accrued using a questionnaire. Patients were treated by microfoam sclerotherapy giving a maximum importance to smaller veins, depicting a modified technique of microfoam sclerotherapy (MMFST). This is based on the significance of microscopic venous valves (MVVs) in the development of chronic venous disease (CVD). Follow-up was according to a predefined schedule, and improvements and complications were recorded. A positive family history of VVs was reported in 85.23 % of patients. Half the study population belonged to CEAP clinical class IV. There were no significant complications in patients throughout the 2 to 6 years of follow-up. Recurrence was rarely reported during follow-up and was corrected by repeating the procedure as required during follow-up. MMFST is an innovation in the treatment of VVs based on new principles, with the potential to control and revert the symptoms of CVD, with minimal complications.


Chemical bombing Complications Microfoam Modified sclerotherapy Recurrence Varicose veins Microscopic venous valves 



We would like to thank Pinaki Ghosh, Sunita Nair, and Richa Goyal Capita India Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, for providing editorial support to the manuscript. The authors are thankful to The Director, St Thomas Hospital, Changanassery, and BioQuest Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, for guidance during review of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Surgeons of India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Thomas Institute of Research on Venous DiseaseChanganasseryIndia
  2. 2.Nelson Mandela Academic HospitalMthathaSouth Africa

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