Exploring Binding Mechanisms between Curcumin and Silkworm 30Kc19 Protein Using Spectroscopic Analyses and Computational Simulations
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The curry compound, curcumin exerts multiple health-promotive functions; however, its poor solubility and stability limits its biological applications. In this study, we illuminate intermolecular binding mechanisms in the nano-sized complex of curcumin with silkworm protein, 30Kc19. The intrinsic fluorescence of 30Kc19 was gradually quenched by the increase of curcumin concentrations, which demonstrates molecule-molecule complexations mediated by the fluorophore amino acid residues (Tyr, Trp) in the protein. The fluorescence quenching showed that the binding occurred at 1:1 molar ratio with binding constant of 3.28 × 104 M-1. The results from scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering indicate that the complexes were formed with cubicle shapes and sizes of 200–250 nm at pH 8.0 (zeta-potential < −20 mV). Along with Fourier transform infrared analysis, computational studies of protein-ligand docking simulation suggest a mechanism that curcumin and 30Kc19 forms complexes through specific amino acid residues (Trp174, Trp180, and Trp225) with minimum binding distance (4 Å). The complexation of curcumin with 30Kc19 protein effectively suppressed the degradation of curcumin over 10 h and improved its antioxidant activity up to 30%. These findings suggest an application of 30Kc19 for the delivery of waterinsoluble bioactive medicines.
Keywordscurcumin 30Kc19 protein protein-ligand complex stability
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