A previous investigation showed that deep-sea water (DSW) can affect the expression of genes that regulate metastasis, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and uPA receptor (uPAR), in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinomas. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DSW on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and cell migration and also explored the mechanism of DSW-induced anti-metastatic potential in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, which is highly expressed in colon cancer and enhances cancer growth and metastasis, was decreased in a hardness-dependent manner by DSW. Also, the wound healing assay revealed that DSW inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell migration in a hardness-dependent manner. DSW also decreased the phosphorylation of various MAPKs, including p38, ERK and JNK, and suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB but not c-Jun. The results suggest that DSW may inhibit cancer cell growth related to iNOS overexpression and PKC-mediated cell migration in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinomas and the antimetastatic potential of DSW may be regulated by prevention of NF-κB nuclear translocation via inhibition of p38, ERK and JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrates that DSW inhibits cancer growth and metastasis via down-regulation of iNOS expression and the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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Lee, KS., Lee, DH., Kwon, YS. et al. Deep-sea water inhibits metastatic potential in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinomas via MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Biotechnol Bioproc E 19, 733–739 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-014-0210-6
- deep sea water (DSW)
- inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
- colon cancer
- mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)