Silver nanoparticles, which are small metallic colloidal particles, ranging 1 ∼ 100 nm in size, have several nano biotechnological applications in medicine, manufacturing and engineering industries. Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles is an ecofriendly, green process. Further, extracellular enzymes and proteins elaborated by fungi are involved in the synthesis of the silver nanoparticle, which makes the downstream processing relatively simpler. In the present investigation, Schizophyllum commune, a mushroom fungus, was tested for its ability to synthesize extracellular as well as intracellular silver nanoparticles. When the fungus was challenged with 1 mM silver nitrate, a change in colour of the broth and the mycelium was observed, indicative of extracellular and intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The presence of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by studying its Surface Plasmon Resonance absorption band in the visible wavelength. FTIR spectrum analysis of the silver nanoparticles indicated the presence of biomolecules in association with the reduction of silver ions. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis of the silver nanoparticles revealed the nanorange dimensions of both the extracellular and the intracellular silver nanoparticles. Analysis of biological activities of the silver nanoparticles disclosed their significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of the dermatophytic fungal pathogens viz. Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum significantly. Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles, assayed through MTT cytotoxicity assay, uncovered that 27.2 and 64% mortality could be obtained in Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma (HEP -2) cell lines at concentrations between 10 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. The results obtained indicate that Schizophyllum commune is capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles in shaken broth cultures (120 rpm) at 25 ± 2℃ and pH 7.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Bhatt, J. S. A. (2003) Heralding a new future-nanobiotechnology? Curr. Sci. 85: 147–154.
James, E. M. and N. D Browning (1999) Practical aspects of atomic resolution imaging and analysis in STEM. Ultramicroscopy. 78: 125–139.
Sanjeeb, K. S. and L. Vinod (2003) Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging. Drug Discov. Today. 8: 1112–1120.
Goodsell, D. S. (2004) Bionanotechnology: Lessons from nature. pp. 224–237. Hoboken, NY: Wiley-Liss.
David, M. B., P. Martin and A. S. William (2005) Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, Part III: Nanoscale technologies for assessing risk and improving public health. Toxicol. Sci. 88: 298–306.
Lanone, S. and J. Boczkowski (2006) Biomedical applications and potential health risks of nanomaterials: molecular mechanisms. Curr. Mol. Med. 6: 651–663.
Lee, S., J. Lee, K. Kim, S.-J. Sim, M. B. Gu, J. Yi, and J. Lee (2009) Eco-toxicity of commercial silver nanopowders to bacterial and yeast strains. Biotechnol. Bioproc. Eng. 14: 490–495.
Vaidyanathan, R., K. Kalishwaralal, S. Gopalram, and S. Gurunathan (2009) Nanosilver — the burgeoning therapeutic molecule and its green synthesis. Biotechnol. Adv. 27: 924–937.
Shankar, S., A. Rai, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry (2004) Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275: 496–502.
Ganesh Babu, M. M. and P. Gunasekaran (2009) Production and structural characterization of crystalline silver nanoparticles from Bacillus cereus isolate. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 74: 191–195.
Moyer, C. A. (1965) A treatment of burns. Trans Stud Coll Physicians Philadelphia. 33: 53–103.
Atul Bharde, A. (2007) Microbial Synthesis of Metal Oxide, Metal Sulfide and Metal Nanoparticles. Ph. D. Thesis. National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.
Kim, K. J., W. S. Sung, S. K. Moon, J. S. Choi, J. G. Kim, and D. G. Lee (2008) Antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles on dermatophytes. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 18: 14821484.
Carlson, C., S. M. Hussain, A. M Schrand, L. K. Braydich-Stolle, K. L. Hess, and R. L. Jones (2008) Unique cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles: Size-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. J. Phys. Chem. B. 112: 13608–13619.
Sastry, M., A. Ahmad, M. I. Khan, and R. Kumar (2003) Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycetes. Curr. Sci. 85: 162–170.
Moaddab, S., H. Ahari, D. Shahbazzadeh, A. Motallebi, A. A. Anvar, J. Rahman-Nyae, and M. A. Shokrgozar (2011) Toxicity study of nanosilver (Nanocid®) on osteoblast cancer cell Line. Iran. Nano Lett. 1: 11–16.
Sosa, I. O., C. Noguez, and R. G. Barrera (2003) Optical properties of metal nanoparticles with arbitrary shapes. J. Phys. Chem. B. 107: 6269–6275.
Foldbjerg, R., D. A. Dang, and H. Autrup (2011) Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in the human lung cancer cell line, A549. Arch. Toxicol. 85: 743–750.
About this article
Cite this article
Arun, G., Eyini, M. & Gunasekaran, P. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune and its biomedical applications. Biotechnol Bioproc E 19, 1083–1090 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-014-0071-z
- silver nanoparticles
- Schizophyllum commune
- antibacterial activity
- anti-dermatophytic fungal activity
- anti-cancer activity