Characterization of Avian-like Influenza A (H4N6) Virus Isolated from Caspian Seal in 2012
Marine mammals are widely distributed and can be found almost in all coastal waters and coastlines around the world. The interface areas between marine and terrestrial environments provide natural habitats for aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals as well as for reservoir species of avian influenza viruses (AIV) (Runstadler et al. 2013). Previous studies showed that wild aquatic birds, the natural reservoir of AIV, are able to transmit the virus to various mammals, including seals, swine, horses, muskrats, and humans (Webster et al. 1992; Reperant et al. 2009; Gulyaeva et al. 2017). Close contacts between sea mammals and wild birds on breeding-grounds could promote both interspecies transmission of AIV and virus establishment in a new host (Fereidouni et al. 2014). Various AIV subtypes (A/seal/Massachusetts/80(H7N7), A/Seal/MA/133/82(H4N5), A/Seal/MA/3807/91(H4N6), A/Seal/MA/3911/92(H3N3), A/harbour seal/Mass/1/2011(H3N8) and A/harbor seal/NL/PV14-221_ThS/2015(H10N7) etc.) have...
This study was supported by RFBR (research project No.17-04-01919), the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFE0205800), the National Science and Technology Major Project (2016ZX10004222), intramural special grants for influenza virus research from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJZD-EW-L15). YB is supported by the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (2017122). WS was supported by the Taishan Scholars program of Shandong Province (ts201511056). The authors thank Thijs Kuiken and Peter van Run from the Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC for assistance in the IHC analysis, and Vladimir Petrov from the Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine for proofreading the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal and Human Rights Statement
The work was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of laboratory animal treatment (Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes), the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (1985), ethical norms for handling animals approved by the Biomedical Ethical Committee of the Federal Research Center for Fundamental and Translational Medicine (No. 25 of 19.11.2012) and The Rules of Laboratory Practice in the Russian Federation (Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No.267 of 19.06.2003).
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