Virologica Sinica

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 51–62 | Cite as

Current status of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in China

Review

Abstract

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTSV is associated with a high mortality rate and has been reported in China, South Korea and Japan. SFTSV undergoes rapid changes owing to evolution, gene mutations, and reassortment between different strains of SFTSV. In this review, we summarize the recent cases and general properties of SFTS, focusing on the epidemiology, genetic diversity, clinical features, and diagnostics of SFTSV in China. From 2010 to October 2016, SFTS cases were reported in 23 provinces of China, with increased numbers yearly. Infection and death cases are mainly found in central China, where the Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks are spread. The national average mortality rate of SFTS infection was 5.3%, with higher risk to elder people. The main epidemic period was from May to July, with a peak in May. Thus, SFTS reminds a significant public health problem, and development of prophylactic vaccines and effective antiviral drugs will be highly needed.

Keywords

severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) Bunyaviridae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bao CJ, Guo XL, Qi X, Hu JL, Zhou MH, Varma JK, Cui LB, Yang HT, Jiao YJ, Klena JD, et al. 2011. A family cluster of infections by a newly recognized bunyavirus in eastern China, 2007: further evidence of person-to-person transmission. Clin Infect Dis, 53: 1208–1214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chang MS, Woo JH. 2013. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome: Tick-Mediated Viral Disease. J Korean Med Sci, 28: 795–796.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Chi YY, Zhai SY, Wen HL, Wang L. 2012. SFTSV RNA detection in seropositive patients. J Shandong Univ (Health Sci), 50: 118–121. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Cui L, Ge Y, Qi X, Xu G, Li H, Zhao K, Wu B, Shi Z, Guo X, Hu L, et al. 2012. Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization. J Clin Microbiol, 50: 3881–3885.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Cui N, Liu R, Lu QB, Wang LY, Qin SL, Yang ZD, Zhuang L, Liu K, Li H, Zhang XA, Hu JG, Wang JY, Liu W, Cao WC. 2015. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus-related human encephalitis. J Infect, 70: 52–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Peng C, Wang H, Zhang W, Zheng X, Tong Q, Jie S, Yang D, Zhou Y. 2016. Decreased monocyte subsets and TLR4-mediated functions in patients with acute fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). Int J Infect Dis, 43: 37–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding NZ, Luo ZF, Niu DD, Ji W, Kang XH, Cai SS, Xu DS, Wang QW, He CQ. 2013. Identification of two severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains originating from reassortment. Virus Res, 178: 543–546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gai ZT, Zhang Y, Liang MF, Jin C, Zhang S, Zhu CB, Li C, Li XY, Zhang QF, Bian PF, et al. 2012. Clinical progress and risk factors for death in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome patients. J Infect Dis, 206: 1095–1102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ge HM, Wang QK, Li ZF, et al. 2012. Survey of SFTSV carrying situation in rodents in SFTS epidemic area of Donghai County. Jiangsu Prevent Med, 23: 16–18. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Gong Z, Gu S, Zhang Y, Sun J, Wu X, Ling F, Shi W, Zhang P, Li D, Mao H, et al. 2015. Probable aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in southeastern China. Clin Microbiol Infect, 21: 1115–1120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo X, Zhang L, Zhang W, Chi Y, Zeng X, Li X, Qi X, Jin Q, Zhang X, Huang M, et al. 2013. Human antibody neutralizes severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, an emerging hemorrhagic Fever virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 20: 1426–1432.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Guan Y, Drosten C. 2016. Editorial overview: Emerging viruses: Interspecies transmission. Curr Opin Virol, 16: v–vi.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. He CQ, Ding NZ. 2012. Discovery of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus strains originating from intragenic recombination. J Virol, 86: 12426–12430.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang YT, Zhao L, Wen HL, Yang Y, Yu H, Yu XJ. 2016. Neutralizing antibodies to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus 4 years after hospitalization, China. Emerg Infect Dis, 22: 1985–1987.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiang XL, Zhang S, Jiang M, Bi ZQ, Liang MF, Ding SJ, Wang SW, Liu JY, Zhou SQ, Zhang XM, Li DX, Xu AQ. 2015. Acluster of person-to-person transmission cases caused by SFTS virus in Penglai, China. Clin Microbiol Infect, 21: 274–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiao Y, Zeng X, Guo X, Qi X, Zhang X, Shi Z, Zhou M, Bao C, Zhang W, Xu Y, Wang H. 2011. Preparation and evaluation of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) nucleocapsid protein for detection of total anti-bodies in human and animal sera by double antigen sandwich ELISA. J Clin Microbiol, 50: 372–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin C, Song J, Han Y, Li C, Qiu P, Liang M. 2016. Inclusion Bodies are formed in SFTSV-infected human macrophages. Bing Du Xue Bao, 32: 19–25. (In Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kawaguchi T, Matsuda M, Takajo I, Kawano A, Kariya Y, Kubo K, Miyauchi S, Umekita K, Nagatomo Y, Yano T, Yano K, Okayama A. 2016. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with myocardial dysfunction and encephalopathy: A case report. J Infect Chemotherapy, 22: 633–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim KH, Yi J, Kim G, Choi SJ, Jun KI, Kim NH, Choe PG, Kim NJ, Lee JK, Oh MD. 2013. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, South Korea, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis, 219: 1892–1894.Google Scholar
  20. Lam TT, Liu W, Bowden TA, Cui N, Zhuang L, Liu K, Zhang YY, Cao WC, Pybus OG. 2013. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndromevirus. Epidemics, 5: 1–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Li DX. 2011. Summary of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Bunyavirus. Chinese J Exp Clin Virol, 25: 81–84. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Li J, Han Y, Xing Y, Li S, Kong L, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Liu N, Wang Q, Wang S, Lu S, Huang Z. 2014. Concurrent Measurement of Dynamic Changes in Viral Load, Serum Enzymes, T Cell Subsets, and Cytokines in Patients with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome. PLoS One, 9: e91679.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Li ZF, Hu Jl, Bao CJ, et al. 2016. Rapid detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by AllGlo probe-based real-time RT-PCR. Jiangsu Prev Med, 27: 516–519. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Li Z, Cui L, Zhou M, Qi X, Bao C, Hu J, Shan J, Wu B, Wang S, Guo X, Jiao Y, Tang F, Wang H. 2013. Development and application of a one-step real-time RT-PCR using a minor-groovebinding probe for the detection of a novel bunyavirus in clinical specimens. J Med Virol, 85: 370–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Li Z, Qi X, Zhou M, Bao C, Hu J, Wu B, Wang S, Tan Z, Fu J, Shan J, Zhu Y, Tang F. 2013. A two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of four hemorrhagic fever viruses: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, and dengue virus. Arch Virol, 158: 1857–1863.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu JW, Wen HL, Fang LZ, Zhang ZT, He ST, Xue ZF, Ma DQ, Zhang XS, Wang T, Yu H, Zhang Y, Zhao L, Yu XJ. 2013. Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January-August 2013. Emerg Infect Dis, 20: 2126–2128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu JW, Zhao L, Luo LM, Liu MM, Sun Y, Su X, Yu XJ. 2016. Molecular Evolution and Spatial Transmission of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Based on Complete Genome Sequences. PLoS One, 11: e0151677.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu K, Cui N, Fang LQ, Wang BJ, Lu QB, Peng W, Li H, Wang LY, Liang S, Wang HY, Zhang YY, Zhuang L, Yang H, Gray GC, de Vlas SJ, Liu W, Cao WC. 2014. Epidemiologic features and environmental risk factors of severs fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Xinyang, China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 8: e2820.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu L, Chen W, Yang Y, Jiang Y. 2016. Molecular evolution of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia virus (FTLSV) based on whole-genome sequences. Infect Genet Evol, 39: 55–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu Q, He B, Huang SY, Wei F, Zhu XQ. 2014. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis, 14: 763–772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu W, Lu QB, Cui N, Li H, Wang LY, Liu K, Yang ZD, Wang BJ, Wang HY, Zhang YY, et al. Case-Fatality Ratio and Effectiveness of Ribavirin Therapy Among Hospitalized Patients in China Who Had Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome. Clin Infect Dis, 2013, 57: 1292–1299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu Y, Li Q, Hu W, Wu J, Wang Y, Mei L, Walker DH, Ren J, Wang Y, Yu XJ. 2012. Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis, 12: 156–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu QB, Cui N, Hu JG, Chen WW, Xu W, Li H, Zhang XA, Ly H, Liu W, Cao WC. Characterization of immunological responses in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: a cohort study in China. Vaccine, 2015, 33: 1250–1255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Luo LM, Zhao L, Wen HL, Zhang ZT, Liu JW, Fang LZ, Xue ZF, Ma DQ, Zhang XS, Ding SJ, Lei XY, Yu XJ. 2015. Haemaphysalis longicornis Tick as Reservoir and Vector of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China. Emerg Infect Dis, 21: 1770–1776.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Lei XY, Liu MM, Yu XJ. 2015. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and its pathgen SFTSV. Microbes Infect, 17: 149–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ma T, Sun JM, Chen LF, Shi XG, Liu K, Gong ZY, Chen J, Zhang R, Ren JP, Jiang JM. 2015. A pediatric case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Zhejiang Province, China. J Clin Virol, 72: 85–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. McMullan LK, Folk SM, Kelly AJ, MacNeil A, Goldsmith CS, Metcalfe MG, Batten BC, Albariño CG, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, Nicholson WL, Nichol ST. 2012. A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med, 367: 834–841.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mishra AC, Mehta M, Mourya DT, Gandhi S. 2011. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in India. Lancet, 378: 372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Niu G, Li J, Liang M, Jiang X, Jiang M, Yin H, Wang Z, Li C, Zhang Q, Jin C, Wang X, Ding S, Xing Z, Wang S, Bi Z, Li D. 2013. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus among domesticated animals, China. Emerg Infect Dis, 19: 756–763.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Ni H, Yang F, Li Y, Liu W, Jiao S, Li Z, Yi B, Chen Y, Hou X, Hu F, Ding Y, Bian G, Du Y, Xu G, Cao G. 2015. Apodemus agrarius is a potential natural host of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS)-causing novel bunyavirus. J Clin Virol, 71: 82–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Park SW, Song BG, Shin EH, Yun SM, Han MG, Park MY, Park C, Ryou J. 2014. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea. Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 5: 975–977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Peng C, Wang H, Zhang W, Zheng X, Tong Q, Jie S, Yang D, Zhou Y. 2016. Decreased monocyte subsets and TLR4-mediated functions in patients with acute severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Int J Infect Dis, 43: 37–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Plegge T, Hofmann-Winkler H, Spiegel M, Pöhlmann S. 2016. Evidence that processing of the Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Gn/Gc Polyprotein Is Critical for Viral Infectivity and Requires an Internal Gc Signal Peptide. PloS One, 11: e0166013.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Park SW, Han MG, Yun SM, Park C, Lee WJ, Ryou J. 2014. Severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis, 20: 1880–1882.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Park SW, Song BG, Shin EH, Yun SM, Han MG, Park MY, Park C, Ryou J. 2014. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea. Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 5: 975–977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Qu B, Qi X, Wu X, Liang M, Li C, Cardona CJ, Xu W, Tang F, Li Z, Wu B, Powell K, Wegner M, Li D, Xing Z. 2012. Suppression of the interferon and NF-κB responses by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol, 86: 8388–8401.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Richard ME, Benjamin B. 2014. Emerging phleboviruses. Curr Opin Virol, 5: 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stone R. 2010. Rival teams identify a virus behind deaths in central China. Science, 330: 20–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sun Y, Liang M, Qu J, Jin C, Zhang Q, Li J, Jiang X, Wang Q, Lu J, Gu W, Zhang S, Li C, Wang X, Zhan F, Yao W, Bi Z, Wang S, Li D. 2012. Early diagnosis of novel SFTS bunyavirus infection by quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. J Clin Virol, 53: 48–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sun Q, Qi X, Zhang Y, Wu X, Liang M, Li C, Li D, Cardona CJ, Xing Z. 2016. Synaptogyrin-2 Promotes Replication of a Novel Tick-borne Bunyavirus through Interacting with Viral Nonstructural Protein NSs. J Biol Chem, 291: 16138–16149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sun Y, Guo Y, Lou Z. 2012. A versatile building block: the structures and functions of negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins. Protein Cell, 3: 893–902.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Takeshi K, Motohiro M, Ichiro T, Kawano A, Kariya Y, Kubo K, Miyauchi S, Umekita K, Nagatomo Y, Yano T, et al. 2016. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with myocardial dysfunction and encephalopathy: A case report. J Infect and Chem, 22: 633–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Takahashi T, Maeda K, Suzuki T, Ishido A, Shigeoka T, Tominaga T, Kamei T, Honda M, Ninomiya D, Sakai T, et al. 2014. The first identification and retrospective study of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan. J Infect Dis, 209: 816–827.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tang X, Wu W, Wang H, Du Y, Liu L, Kang K, Huang X, Ma H, Mu F, Zhang S, Zhao G, Cui N, Zhu BP, You A, Chen H, Liu G, Chen W, Xu B. 2013. Human-to-human transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus through contact with infectious blood. J Infect Dis, 207: 736–739.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kawaguchi T, Matsuda M, Takajo I, Kawano A, Kariya Y, Kubo K, Miyauchi S, Umekita K, Nagatomo Y, Yano T, Yano K, Okayama A. 2016. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with myocardial dysfunction and encephalopathy: A case report. J Infect Chemother, 22: 633–637.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang M, Pennock DG, Spik KW, Schmaljohn CS. 2012. Epitope mapping studies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the G1 and G2 envelope glycoproteins of Hantaan virus. Virology, 197: 757–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang X, Zhang Q, Hao F, Gao X, Wu W, Liang M, Liao Z, Luo S, Xu W, Li D, Wang S. 2014. Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection. Biomed Res Int, 2014: 530621.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Webster CG, Reitz SR, Perry KL, Adkins S. 2011. A natural M RNA reassortant arising from two species of plant and insect infecting bunyaviruses and comparison of its sequence and biological properties to parental species. Virology, 413: 216–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wen HL, Zhao L, Zhai S, Chi Y, Cui F, Wang D, Wang L, Wang Z, Wang Q, Zhang S, Liu Y, Yu H, Yu XJ. 2014. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Shandong Province, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis, 20: 1–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Wu X, Qi X, Liang M, Li C, Cardona CJ, Li D, Xing Z. 2014. Roles of viroplasm-like structures formed by nonstructural protein NSs in infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. FASEB Journal, 28: 2504–2516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Wu W, Zhang S, Qu J, Zhang Q, Li C, Li J Jin C, Liang M, Li D. 2014. Simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies associated with viral hemorrhagic fever by a multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay. Virus Res, 187: 84–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Xu B, Liu L, Huang X, Ma H, Zhang Y, Du Y, Wang P, Tang X, Wang H, Kang K, et al. 2011. Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus. PLoS Pathog, 7: 1453–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yang G, Li B, Liu L, Huang W, Zhang W, Liu Y. 2012. Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of a new SFTS bunyavirus. Arch Virol, 157, 1779–1783.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Yoshikawa T, Fukushi S, Tani H, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Toda S, Shimazu Y, Yano K, Morimitsu T, Ando K, et al. 2014. Sensitive and specific PCR systems for detection of both Chinese and Japanese severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains and prediction of patient survival based on viral load. J Clin Microbiol, 52: 3325–3333.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Yu FX, Du YH, Huang XY, Ma H, Xu Bl, Ferdinard A, Daisuke H, Corazon C, Kouichi M. 2015. Application of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein for the detection of SFTSV-specific human IgG and IgM antibodies by indirect ELISA. Virology J, 8: 12–117.Google Scholar
  66. Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, et al. 2011. Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl Med, 364: 1523–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yun SM, Lee YJ, Choi W, Kim HC, Chong ST, Chang KS, Coburn JM, Klein TA, Lee WJ. 2014. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and tick-borne encephalitis viruses in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation, Republic of Korea, 2014. Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 7: 970–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yun Y, Heo ST, Kim G, Hewson R, Kim H, Park D, Cho NH, Oh WS, Ryu SY, Kwon KT, Medlock JM, Lee KH. 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in South Korea and migratory bird routes between China, South Korea, and Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyq, 93: 468–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhang L, Liu Y, Ni D, Li Q, Yu Y, Yu XJ, Wan K, Li D, Liang G, Jiang X, et al. 2008. Nosocomial transmission of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in China. JAMA, 300: 2263–2270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang LP, Wang YC, Zhao Y, et al. Research Progress of Epidemiology and Detection Method of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Bunyavirus. J of Inspec Quarantine, 2014, 24: 67–71. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  71. Zhang X, Liu Y, Zhao L, Li B, Yu H, Wen H, Yu XJ.. 2013. An emerging hemorrhagic fever in China caused by a novel bunyavirus SFTSV. Sci China Life Sci, 56: 697–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang YX, Xie QX, Sun Y, et al. 2011. Isolation of novel bunyavirus using vero cell. Anhui J Prev Med, 18: 249–251.Google Scholar
  73. Zhang YZ, Xu JG. 2016. The emergence and cross species transmission of newly discovered tick-borne Bunyavirus in China. Curr Opin Virol, 16: 126–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang YZ, Zhou DJ, Qin XC, Tian JH, Xiong Y, Wang JB, Chen XP, Gao DY, He YW, Jin D, et al. 2012. The ecology, genetic diversity, and phylogeny of Huaiyangshan virus in China. J Virol, 86: 2864–2868.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS and Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wuhan University School of Basic Medical SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and PreventionWuhanChina
  3. 3.Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina
  4. 4.Wuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations