Cyanophages are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect cyanobacteria, and they can be found in both freshwater and marine environments. They have a complex pattern of host ranges and play important roles in controlling cyanobacteria population. Unlike marine cyanophages, for which there have been a number of recent investigations, very little attention has been paid to freshwater cyanophages. This review summarizes the taxonomy and morphology, host range, distribution, seasonal dynamics, and complete genomes of freshwater cyanophages, as well as diagnostic markers that can be used to identify them.
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