Viral infection begins with the entry of the virus into the host target cell and initiates replication. For this reason, the virus entry machinery is an excellent target for antiviral therapeutics. In general, a virus life cycle includes several major steps: cell-surface attachment, entry, replication, assembly, and egress, while some viruses involve another stage called latency. The early steps of the virus life cycle include virus attachment, receptor binding, and entry. These steps involve the initial interactions between a virus and the host cell and thus are major determinants of the tropism of the virus infection, the nature of the virus replication, and the diseases resulting from the infection. Owing to the pathological importance of these early steps in the progress of viral infectious diseases, the development of inhibitors against these steps has been the focus of the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) were used as representatives of enveloped DNA, enveloped RNA, and non-enveloped viruses, respectively. The current mechanistic understanding of their attachment and entry, and the strategies for antagonist screenings are summarized herein.
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Foundation items: National Basic Research Program (973) (2009CB522300, 2010CB530100); Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSCX1-YW-10); Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, China (2007Z1-E0111).
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Peng, T. Strategies for antiviral screening targeting early steps of virus infection. Virol. Sin. 25, 281–293 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-010-3135-z
- Virus Infection
- Antiviral therapeutics
- Virus life cycle
- Inhibitor screening