Virologica Sinica

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 359–414 | Cite as

Encyclopedia of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus genes

  • David P. A. Cohen
  • Martin Marek
  • Bryn G. Davies
  • Just M. Vlak
  • Monique M. van Oers


The Autographa californica multiple capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was the first baculovirus for which the complete nucleotide sequence became known. Since then 15 years lapsed and much research has been performed to elucidate putative functions of the annotated open reading frames of this virus and this endeavour is still ongoing. AcMNPV is the most well-known and well-studied baculovirus species, not in the least for its application as a vector for the high-level expression of foreign genes in insect cells. This article is the first monograph of a single baculovirus and gives a current overview of what is known about the 151 AcMNPV ORFs, including (putative) function and temporal and spatial presence of transcripts and protein. To date 60 ORFs have a proven function, another 19 ORFs have homologs for which functions are known in other baculoviruses and 72 ORFs are still enigmatic. This paper should assist the reader in quickly finding the essentials of AcMNPV.

Key words

Baculovirus Autographa californica multiple capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus(AcMNPV) Functional genomics Review 

CLC number



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Acharya A, Gopinathan K P. 2001. Identification of an enhancer-like element in the polyhedrin gene upstream region of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol, 82: 2811–2819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acharya A, Gopinathan K P. 2002. Transcriptional analysis and preliminary characterization of ORF Bm42 from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology, 299: 213–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Afonso C L, Tulman E R, Lu Z, et al. 1999. The genome of Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus. J Virol, 73: 533–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Afonso C L, Tulman E R, Lu Z, et al. 2000. The genome of Fowlpox virus. J Virol, 74:3815–3831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahmad M, Srinivasula S M, Wang L, et al. 1997. Spodoptera frugiperda caspase-1, a novel insect death protease that cleaves the nuclear immunophilin FKBP46, is the target of the baculovirus antiapoptotic protein p35. J Biol Chem, 272: 1421–1424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Altschul S, Gish W, Miller W, et al. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol, 215: 403–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    An S H, Xing L P, Shi W J, et al. 2006. Characterization of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF17. Acta Virol, 50: 17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Au V, Yu M, Carstens E B. 2009. Characterization of a baculovirus nuclear localization signal domain in the late expression factor 3 protein. Virology, 385: 209–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ayres M D, Howard S C, Kuzio J, et al. 1994. The complete DNA sequence of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology, 202: 586–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bauser C A, Elick T A, Fraser M J. 1996. Characterization of hitchhiker, a transposon insertion frequently associated with baculovirus FP mutants derived upon passage in the TN-368 cell line. Virology, 216: 235–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bawden A L, Glassberg K J, Diggans J, et al. 2000. Complete genomic sequence of the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology, 274: 120–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Becker D, Knebel-Mörsdorf D. 1993. Sequence and temporal appearance of the early transcribed baculovirus gene HE65. J Virol, 67: 5867–5872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Belyavskyi M, Braunagel S C, Summers M D. 1998. The structural protein ODV-EC27 of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a multifunctional viral cyclin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95: 11205–11210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beniya H, Braunagel S C, Summers M D. 1998. Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus: subcellular localization and protein trafficking of BV/ODV-E26 to intranuclear membranes and viral envelopes. Virology, 240: 64–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bideshi D K, Renault S, Stasiak K, et al. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis and possible function of bro-like genes, a multigene family widespread among large double-stranded DNA viruses of invertebrates and bacteria. J Gen Virol, 84: 2531–2544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Braunagel S C, Burks J K, Rosas-Acosta G, et al. 1999. Mutations within the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus FP25K gene decrease the accumulation of the ODV-E66 and alter its intranuclear transport. J Virol, 73: 8559–8570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Braunagel S C, Elton D M, Ma H, et al. 1996. Identification and analysis of an Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural protein of the occlusion-derived virus envelope: ODV-E56. Virology, 217: 97–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Braunagel S C, Guidry P A, Rosas-Acosta G, et al. 2001. Identification of BV/ODV-C42, an Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus orf101-encoded structural protein detected in infected-cell complexes with ODV-EC27 and p78/83. J Virol, 75: 12331–12338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braunagel S C, He H, Ramamurthy P, et al. 1996. Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology, 222: 100–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Braunagel S C, Russell W K, Rosas-Acosta G, et al. 2003. Determination of the protein composition of the occlusion-derived virus of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100: 9797–9802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Braunagel S C, Williamson S T, Saksena S, et al. 2004. Trafficking of ODV-E66 is mediated via a sorting motif and other viral proteins: Facilitated trafficking to the inner nuclear membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101: 8372–8377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Broussard D R, Guarino L A, Jarvis D L. 1996. Dynamic phosphorylation of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus pp31. J Virol, 70: 6767–6774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Büchen-Osmond C. 2006. ICTVdb-The universal virus database, version 4. Columbia University, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burks J K, Summers M D, Braunagel S C. 2007. BV/ODV-E26: A palmitoylated, multifunctional structural protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology, 361: 194–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carpentier D C J, Griffiths C M, King L A. 2008. The baculovirus P10 protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus forms two distinct cytoskeletal-like structures and associates with polyhedral occlusion bodies during infection. Virology, 371: 278–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carson D D, Summers M D, Guarino L A. 1991. Molecular analysis of a baculovirus regulatory gene. Virology, 182: 279–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Changela A, Martins A, Shuman S, et al. 2005. Crystal structure of baculovirus RNA triphosphatase complexed with phosphate. J Biol Chem, 280: 17848–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Charlton C A, Volkman L E. 1993. Penetration of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus nucleocapsids into IPLB Sf21 cells induces actin cable formation. Virology, 197: 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Charlton C A, Volkman L E. 1991. Sequential rearrangement and nuclear polymerization of actin in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells. J Virol, 65: 1219–1227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen C-J, Thiem S M. 1997. Differential infectivity of two Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus mutants on three permissive cell lines is the result of lef-7 deletion. Virology, 227: 88–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen H Q, Chen K P, Yao Q, et al. 2007. Characterization of a late gene, ORF67 from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. FEBS Lett, 581: 5836–5842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen W, Li Z, Li S, et al. 2006. Identification of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF97, a novel protein associated with envelope of occlusion-derived virus. Virus Genes, 32: 79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen Y, Yao B, Zhu Z, et al. 2004. A constitutive super-enhancer: homologous region 3 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 318: 1039–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cheng X-W, Krell P J, Arif B M. 2001. P34.8 (GP37) is not essential for baculovirus replication. J Gen Virol, 82: 299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chisholm G E, Henner D J. 1988. Multiple early transcripts and splicing of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus ie-1 gene. J Virol, 62: 3193–3200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clem R J. 2007. Baculoviruses and apoptosis: a diversity of genes and responses. Curr Drug Targets, 8: 1069–1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Clem R J, Fechheimer M, Miller L K. 1991. Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells. Science, 254: 1388–1390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clem R J, Miller L K. 1993. Apoptosis reduces both the in vitro replication and the in vivo infectivity of a baculovirus. J Virol, 67: 3730–3738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clemens M J. 2001. Initiation factor eIF2 alpha phosphorylation in stress responses and apoptosis. Prog Mol Subcell Biol, 27: 57–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Condreay J P, Witherspoon S M, Clay W C, et al. 1999. Transient and stable gene expression in mammalian cells transduced with a recombinant baculovirus vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 96: 127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cory J S, Clarke E E, Brown M L, et al. 2004. Microparasite manipulation of an insect: the influence of the egt gene on the interaction between a baculovirus and its lepidopteran host. Funct Ecol, 18: 443–450.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Crawford A M, Miller L K. 1988. Characterization of an early gene accelerating expression of late genes of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Virol, 62: 2773–2781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Crook N E, Jarrett P. 1991. Viral and bacterial pathogens of insects. J Appl Bacteriol Symposium Supplement. 20: 91S–96S.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Crouch E A, Cox L T, Morales K G, et al. 2007. Inter-subunit interactions of the Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus RNA polymerase. Virology, 367: 265–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Crouch E A, Passarelli A L. 2002. Genetic requirements for homologous recombination in Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Virol, 76: 9323–9334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dai X, Stewart T M, Pathakamuri J A, et al. 2004. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus exon0 (orf141), which encodes a RING finger protein, is required for efficient production of budded virus. J Virol, 78: 9633–9644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dai X, Willis L G, Huijskens I, et al. 2004. The acidic activation domains of the baculovirus transactivators IE1 and IE0 are functional for transcriptional activation in both insect and mammalian cells. J Gen Virol, 85: 573–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Detvisitsakun C, Berretta M F, Lehiy C, et al. 2005. Stimulation of cell motility by a viral fibroblast growth factor homolog: Proposal for a role in viral pathogenesis. Virology, 336:308–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Detvisitsakun C, Cain E L, Passarelli A L. 2007. The Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus fibroblast growth factor accelerates host mortality. Virology, 365: 70–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Detvisitsakun C, Hutfless E L, Berretta M F, et al. 2006. Analysis of a baculovirus lacking a functional viral fibroblast growth factor homolog. Virology, 346: 258–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dever T E, Sripriya R, McLachlin J R, et al. 1998. Disruption of cellular translational control by a viral truncated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase homolog. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95: 4164–4169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dong C, Deng F, Li D, et al. 2007. The heptad repeats region is essential for AcMNPV P10 filament formation and not the proline-rich or the C-terminus basic regions. Virology, 365: 390–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dreschers S, Roncarati R, Knebel-Morsdorf D. 2001. Actin rearrangement-inducing factor of baculoviruses is tyrosine phosphorylated and colocalizes to F-actin at the plasma membrane. J Virol, 75: 3771–3778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Durantel D, Croizier G, Ravallec M, et al. 1998. Temporal expression of the AcMNPV lef-4 gene and subcellular localization of the protein. Virology, 241: 276–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Durantel D, Croizier L, Ayres M D, et al. 1998. The pnk/pnl gene (ORF 86) of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a non-essential, immediate early gene. J Gen Virol, 79: 629–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eddins M J, Lemongello D, Friesen P D, et al. 2002. Crystallization and low-resolution structure of an effector-caspase/P35 complex: Similarities and differences to an initiator-caspase/P35 complex. Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 58: 299–302.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eldridge R, Li Y, Miller L K. 1992. Characterization of a baculovirus gene encoding a small conotoxinlike polypeptide. J Virol, 66: 6563–6571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Elvin C M, Vuocolo T, Pearson R D, et al. 1996. Characterization of a major peritrophic membrane protein, peritrophin-44, from the larvae of Lucilia cuprina. J Biol Chem, 271: 8925–8935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Erlandson M, Mahy B W J, van Regenmortel M H V. 2008. Insect pest control by viruses. Encyclopedia of Virology. Oxford: Academic Press, p125–133.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Esposito D, Scocca J J. 1997. The integrase family of tyrosine recombinases: evolution of a conserved active site domain. Nucleic Acids Res, 25: 3605–3614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Evans J T, Leisy D J, Rohrmann G F. 1997. Characterization of the interaction between the baculovirus replication factors LEF-1 and LEF-2. J Virol, 71: 3114–3119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fan X, McLachlin J R, Weaver R F. 1998. Identification and characterization of a protein kinase-interacting protein encoded by the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology, 240: 175–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fang M, Dai X, Theilmann D A. 2007. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus EXON0 (ORF141) is required for efficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus. J Virol, 81: 9859–9869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fang M, Nie Y, Dai X, et al. 2008. Identification of AcMNPV EXON0 (ac141) domains required for efficient production of budded virus, dimerization and association with BV/ODV-C42 and FP25. Virology, 375: 265–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fang M, Nie Y, Theilmann D A. 2009 AcMNPV EXON0 (AC141) which is required for the efficient egress of budded virus nucleocapsids interacts with Î2-tubulin. Virology, 385(2): 496–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fang M, Wang H, Wang H, et al. 2003. Open reading frame 94 of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a novel conserved occlusion-derived virion protein, ODV-EC43. J Gen Virol, 84: 3021–3027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Faulkner P, Kuzio J, Williams G, et al. 1997. Analysis of p74, a PDV envelope protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus required for occlusion body infectivity in vivo. J Gen Virol, 78: 3091–3100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Funk C J, Consigli R A. 1993. Phosphate cycling on the basic protein of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus. Virology, 193: 396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Garrod D, Chidgey M. 2008. Desmosome structure, composition and function. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1778: 572–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ge J, Wei Z, Huang Y, et al. 2007. AcMNPV ORF38 protein has the activity of ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase and is important for virus replication. Virology, 361: 204–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ge J Q, Yang Z N, Tang X D, et al. 2008. Characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus with a deletion of the baculovirus core gene Bm67. J Gen Virol, 89: 766–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gearing K L, Possee R D. 1990. Functional analysis of a 603 nucleotide open reading frame upstream of the polyhedrin gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Gen Virol, 71: 251–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Goenka S, Weaver R F. 2008. The p26 gene of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus: timing of transcription, and cellular localization and dimerization of product. Virus Res, 131: 136–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goley E D, Ohkawa T, Mancuso J, et al. 2006. Dynamic nuclear actin assembly by Arp2/3 complex and a baculovirus WASP-like protein. Science, 314: 464–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gombart A F, Blissard G W, Rohrmann G F. 1989. Characterization of the genetic organization of the HindIII M region of the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Orgyia pseudotsugata reveals major differences among baculoviruses. J Gen Virol, 70.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gomi S, Majima K, Maeda S. 1999. Sequence analysis of the genome of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol, 80: 1323–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gomi S, Zhou C E, Yih W, et al. 1997. Deletion analysis of four of eighteen late gene expression factor gene homologues of the baculovirus, BmNPV. Virology, 230: 35–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gong M, Jin J, Guarino L A. 1998. Mapping of ORF121, a factor that activates baculovirus early gene expression. Virology, 244: 495–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Griffiths C M, Barnett A L, Ayres M D, et al. 1999. In vitro host range of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus recombinants lacking functional p35, iap1 or iap2. J Gen Virol, 80: 1055–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gross C H, Wolgamot G M, Russell R L, et al. 1993. A 37-kilodalton glycoprotein from a baculovirus of Orgyia pseudotsugata is localized to cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. J Virol, 67: 469–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gross C H, Wolgamot G M, Russell R L Q, et al. 1993. A baculovirus encoded 16-kDa glycoprotein localizes near the nuclear membrane of infected cells. Virology, 192: 386–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guarino L A. 1990. Identification of a viral gene encoding a ubiquitin-like protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 87: 409–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Guarino L A, Dong W, Jin J. 2002. In vitro activity of the baculovirus late expression factor LEF-5. J Virol, 76: 12663–12675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Guarino L A, Jin J, Dong W. 1998. Guanylyltransferase activity of the LEF-4 subunit of baculovirus RNA polymerase. J Virol, 72: 10003–10010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Guarino L A, Mistretta T-A, Dong W. 2002. Baculovirus lef-12 is not required for viral replication. J Virol, 76: 12032–12043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Guarino L A, Mistretta T-A, Dong W. 2002. DNA binding activity of the baculovirus late expression factor PP31. Virus Res, 90: 187–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Guarino L A, Summers M D. 1988. Functional mapping of Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus genes required for late gene expression. J Virol, 62: 463–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Guarino L A, Xu B, Jin J, et al. 1998. A virus-encoded RNA polymerase purified from baculovirus-infected cells. J Virol, 72: 7985–7991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Haas-Stapleton E J, Washburn J O, Volkman L E. 2004. P74 mediates specific binding of Autographa californica M bucleopolyhedrovirus occlusion-derived virus to primary cellular targets in the midgut epithelia of Heliothis virescens larvae. J Virol, 78: 6786–6791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hang X, Dong W, Guarino L A. 1995. The lef-3 gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. J Virol, 69: 3924–3928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hao B, Huang J, Sun X, et al. 2009. Variants of open reading frame Bm126 in wild-type Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates exhibit functional differences. J Gen Virol, 90: 153–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Harrison R L, Bonning B C. 2003. Comparative analysis of the genomes of Rachiplusia ou and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses. J Gen Virol, 84: 1827–1842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harrison R L, Jarvis D L, Summers M D. 1996. The role of the AcMNPV 25K gene, ‘FP25’, in baculovirus polh and p10 expression. Virology, 226: 34–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Harrison R L, Summers M D. 1995. Mutations in the Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus 25 kDa protein gene result in reduced virion occlusion, altered intranuclear envelopment and enhanced virus production. J Gen Virol, 76: 1451–1459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Harwood S H, Li L, Shing Ho P, et al. 1998. AcMNPV late expression factor-5 interacts with itself and contains a zinc ribbon domain that is required for maximal late transcription activity and is homologous to elongation factor TFIIS. Virology, 250: 118–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hawtin R E, Zarkowska T, Arnold K, et al. 1997. Liquefaction of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected insects is dependent on the integrity of virus-encoded chitinase and cathepsin genes. Virology, 238: 243–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hefferon K L. 2004. Baculovirus late expression factors. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 7: 89–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Heldens J G, Liu Y, Zuidema D, et al. 1997. Characterization of a putative Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopoly hedrovirus helicase gene. J Gen Virol, 78: 3101–3114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Herniou E A, Jehle J A. 2007. Baculovirus phylogeny and evolution. Curr Drug Targets, 8: 1043–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Herniou E A, Olszewski J A, Cory J S, et al. 2003. The genome sequence and evolution of baculoviruses. Annu Rev Entomol, 48: 211–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Holden H M, Wesenberg G, Raynes D A, et al. 1996. Molecular structure of a proteolytic fragment of TLP20. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 52: 1153–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hom L G, Volkman L E. 2000. Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus chiA is required for processing of V-CATH. Virology, 277: 178–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hom L G, Volkman L E. 1998. Preventing proteolytic artifacts in the baculovirus expression system. Bio-Techniques, 25: 18–20.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hong T, Summers M D, Braunagel S C. 1997. N-terminal sequences from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus envelope proteins ODV-E66 and ODV-E25 are sufficient to direct reporter proteins to the nuclear envelope, intranuclear microvesicles and the envelope of occlusion derived virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 94: 4050–4055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hooft van Iddekinge B J L, Smith G E, Summers M D. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of the polyhedrin gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology, 131: 561–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hoopes R R, Rohrmann G F. 1991. In vitro transcription of baculovirus immediate early genes: accurate mRNA initiation by nuclear extracts from both insect and human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 88: 4513–4517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hoover K, van Oers M M. 2008. Hypermobility and climbing behaviour induced by baculovirus infection are regulated by separate gene functions 41st Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology and 9th International Conference on Bacillus thuringiensis, Warwick, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hu Y. 2006. Baculovirus vectors for gene therapy, p. 287–320. In Bonning B C, Maramorosch K, and Shatkin A J (ed.), Adv. Virus Res., vol. Volume 68. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hu Z H, Arif B M, Sun J S, et al. 1998. Genetic organization of the HindIII-I region of the single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Buzura suppressaria. Virus Res, 55: 71–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Huang P, Stern M J. 2005. FGF signaling in flies and worms: More and more relevant to vertebrate biology. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 16: 151–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Imai N, Matsuda N, Tanaka K, et al. 2003. Ubiquitin ligase activities of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus RING finger proteins. J Virol, 77: 923–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ito E, Sahri D, Knippers R, et al. 2004. Baculovirus proteins IE-1, LEF-3, and P143 interact with DNA in vivo: A formaldehyde cross-linking study. Virology, 329: 337–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Iwahori S, Ikeda M, Kobayashi M. 2004. Association of Sf9 cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen with the DNA replication site of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol, 85: 2857–2862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jackson H C, Scheideler M A. 1996. Behavioural and anticonvulsant effects of Ca2+ channel toxins in DBA/2 mice. Psychopharmacology, 126: 85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jarvis D L. 2003. Developing baculovirus-insect cell expression systems for humanized recombinant glycoprotein production. Virology, 310: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jarvis D L, Garcia Jr A. 1994. Biosynthesis and processing of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus gp64 protein. Virology, 205: 300–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jehle J A. 2004. The mosaic structure of the polyhedrin gene of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Virus Genes 29: 5–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jehle J A, Blissard G W, Bonning B C, et al. 2006. On the classification and nomenclature of baculoviruses: a proposal for revision. Arch Virol, 151: 1257–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jin J, Dong W, Guarino L A. 1998. The LEF-4 subunit of baculovirus RNA polymerase has RNA 5′-triphosphatase and ATPase activities. J Virol, 72: 10011–10019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kaba S A, Salcedo A M, Wafula P O, et al. 2004. Development of a chitinase and v-cathepsin negative bacmid for improved integrity of secreted recombinant proteins. J Virol Methods, 122: 113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kadlec J, Loureiro S, Abrescia N G A, et al. 2008. The postfusion structure of baculovirus gp64 supports a unified view of viral fusion machines. Nat Struct Biol, 15: 1024–1030.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kamita S G, Nagasaka K, Chua J W, et al. 2005. A baculovirus-encoded protein tyrosine phosphatase gene induces enhanced locomotory activity in a lepidopteran host. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 102: 2584–2589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kang W, Kurihara M, Matsumoto S. 2006. The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Virology, 350: 184–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kang W, Suzuki M, Zemskov E, et al. 1999. Characterization of baculovirus repeated open reading frames (bro) in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Virol, 73: 10339–10345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Katsuma S, Nakanishi T, Shimada T. 2009. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus FP25K is essential for maintaining a steady-state level of v-cath expression throughout the infection. Virus Res, 140: 155–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ke J, Wang J, Deng R, et al. 2008. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac66 is required for the efficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus, general synthesis of preoccluded virions and occlusion body formation. Virology, 374: 421–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kelly D C, Brown D A, Ayres M D, et al. 1983. Properties of the major nucleocapsid protein of Heliothis zea singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Gen Virol, 64: 399–408.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kikhno I, Gutiérrez S, Croizier L, et al. 2002. Characterization of pif, a gene required for the per os infectivity of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol, 83: 3013–3022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    King L K, Possee R D. 1992. The baculovirus expression system: a laboratory guide. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kitts P A, Possee R D. 1993. A method for producing recombinant baculovirus expression vectors at high frequency. BioTechniques, 14: 810–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Knebel-Mörsdorf D, Kremer A, Jahnel F. 1993. Baculovirus gene ME53, which contains a putative zinc finger motif, is one of the major early-transcribed genes. J Virol, 67: 753–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Knebel-Mörsdorf D, Quadt I, Li Y, et al. 2006. Expression of baculovirus late and very late genes depends on LEF-4, a component of the viral RNA polymerase whose guanyltransferase function Is essential. J Virol, 80: 4168–4173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kool M, Ahrens C H, Goldbach R W, et al. 1994. Indentification of genes involved in DNA replication of the Autographa californica baculovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 91: 11212–11216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kool M, Goldbach R W, Vlak J M. 1994. A putative non-hr origin of DNA replication in the HindII-K fragment of Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Gen Virol, 75: 3345–3352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kool M, van den Berg P M M M, Tramper J, et al. 1993. Location of two putative origins of DNA replication of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology, 192: 94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kovacs G R, Choi J, Guarino L A, et al. 1992. Functional dissection of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus immediate-early 1 transcriptional regulatory protein. J Virol, 66: 7429–7437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Krappa R, Roncarati R, Knebel-Mörsdorf D. 1995. Expression of PE38 and IE2, viral members of the C3HC4 finger family, during baculovirus infection: PE38 and IE2 localize to distinct nuclear regions. J Virol, 69: 5287–5293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Krell P J. 1996. Passage effect of virus infection in insect cells. Insect cell cultures, Fundamental and applied aspects, vol. 2. Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. p125–137.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kumar S, Miller L K. 1987. Effects of serial passage of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in cell culture. Virus Res, 7: 335–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    LaCount D J, Hanson S F, Schneider C L, et al. 2000. Caspase inhibitor P35 and inhibitor of apoptosis Op-IAP block in vivo proteolytic activation of an effector caspase at different steps. J Biol Chem, 275: 15657–15664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Landais I, Vincent R, Bouton M, et al. 2006. Functional analysis of evolutionary conserved clustering of bZIP binding sites in the baculovirus homologous regions (hrs) suggests a cooperativity between host and viral transcription factors. Virology, 344: 421–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lapointe R, Back D W, Ding Q, et al. 2000. Identification and molecular characterization of the Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genomic region encoding the regulatory genes pkip, p47, lef-12, and gta. Virology, 271: 109–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lapointe R, Popham H J R, Straschil U, et al. 2004. Characterization of two nucleopolyhedrovirus proteins, Ac145 and Ac150, which affect oral infectivity in a host-dependent manner. J Virol, 78: 6439–6448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lauzon H A M, Lucarotti C J, Krell P J, et al. 2004. Sequence and organization of the Neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. J Virol, 78: 7023–7035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lee H, Krell P J. 1994. Reiterated DNA fragments in defective genomes of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus are competent for AcMNPV-dependent DNA replication. Virology, 202: 418–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lee J C, Chen H H, Chao Y C. 1998. Persistent baculovirus infection results from deletion of the apoptotic suppressor gene p35. J Virol, 72: 9157–9165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Leisy D J, Rohrmann G F. 1993. Characterization of the replication of plasmids containing hr sequences in baculovirusinfected Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Virology, 196: 722–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Li G, Wang J, Deng R, et al. 2008. Characterization of AcMNPV with a deletion of ac68 gene. Virus Genes 37: 119–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Li L, Harwood S H, Rohrmann G F. 1999. Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. Virology, 255: 9–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Li L, Rohrmann G F. 2000. Characterization of a baculovirus alkaline nuclease. J Virol, 74: 6401–6407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Li X, Pang A, Lauzon H A M, et al. 1997. The gene encoding the capsid protein P82 of the Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus: Sequencing, transcription and characterization by immunoblot analysis. J Gen Virol, 78: 2665–2673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Li Y, Miller L K. 1995. Expression and functional analysis of a baculovirus gene encoding a truncated protein kinase homolog. Virology, 206: 314–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Li Y, Wang J, Deng R, et al. 2005. vlf-1 deletion brought AcMNPV to defect in nucleocapsid formation. Virus Genes, 31: 275–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Li Z, Blissard G W. 2008. Functional analysis of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Substitution of heterologous TM domains. J Virol, 82: 3329–3341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Li Z, Li C, Pan L, et al. 2005. Characterization of p24 gene of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virus Genes, 30: 349–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lin G, Blissard G W. 2002. Analysis of an Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus lef-6-null virus: LEF-6 is not essential for viral replication but appears to accelerate late gene transcription. J Virol, 76: 5503–5514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lin G, Blissard G W. 2002. Analysis of an Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus lef-11 Knockout: LEF-11 is essential for viral DNA replication. J Virol, 76: 2770–2779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lin G, Slack J M, Blissard G W. 2001. Expression and localization of LEF-11 in Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected Sf9 cells. J Gen Virol, 82: 2289–2294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Liqun L, Rivkin H, Chejanovsky N. 2005. The immediate-early protein IE0 of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is not essential for viral replication. J Virol, 79: 10077–10082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Liu C, Li Z, Wu W, et al. 2008. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly. Virology, 382: 59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Liu C Y Y, Wang C H, Wang J C, et al. 2007. Stimulation of baculovirus transcriptome expression in mammalian cells by baculoviral transcriptional activators. J Gen Virol, 88: 2176–2184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lo H-R, Chou C-C, Wu T-Y, et al. 2002. Novel baculovirus DNA elements strongly stimulate activities of exogenous and endogenous promoters. J Biol Chem, 277: 5256–5264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lu A, Carstens E B. 1993. Immediate-early baculovirus genes transactivate the p143 gene promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology, 195: 710–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lu A, Carstens E B. 1992. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of the p80 gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus: a homologue of the Orgyia pseudotsugata nuclear polyhedrosis virus capsid-associated gene. Virology, 190: 201–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lu A, Carstens E B. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of a gene essential for viral DNA replication in the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology, 181: 336–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lu A, Craig A, Casselman R, et al. 1996. Nucleotide sequence, insertional mutagenesis, and transcriptional mapping of a conserved region of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (map unit 64.8-66.9). Can J Microbiol, 42: 1267–1273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lu A, Miller L K. 1995. Differential requirements for baculovirus late expression factor genes in two cell lines. J Virol, 69: 6265–6272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lu A, Miller L K. 1994. Identification of three late expression factor genes within the 33.8 to 43.4 map unit region of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Virol, 68: 6710–6718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lu A, Miller L K. 1995. The roles of eighteen baculovirus late expression factor genes in transcription and DNA replication. J Virol, 69: 975–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lu A, Miller L K. 1996. Species-specific effects of the hcf-1 gene on baculovirus virulence. J Virol, 70: 5123–5130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Lu M, Iatrou K. 1997. Characterization of a domain of the genome of BmNPV containing a functional gene for a small capsid protein and harboring deletions eliminating three open reading frames that are present in AcNPV. Gene, 185: 69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Luckow V A, Lee S C, Barry G F, et al. 1993. Efficient generation of infectious recombinant baculoviruses by site-specific transposon-mediated insertion of foreign genes into a baculovirus genome propagated in Escherichia coli. J Virol, 67: 4566–4579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lung O Y, Cruz-Alvarez M, Blissard G W. 2003. Ac23, an envelope fusion protein homolog in the baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, is a viral pathogenicity factor. J Virol, 77: 328–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Luz-Madrigal A, Clapp C, Aranda J, et al. 2007. In vivo transcriptional targeting into the retinal vasculature using recombinant baculovirus carrying the human flt-1 promoter. Virol J. 4: 88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Machesky L M, Insall R H. 2001. WASP homology sequences in baculoviruses. Trends Cell Biol, 11: 286–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Marchler-Bauer A, Anderson J B, Derbyshire M K, et al. 2007. CDD: a conserved domain database for interactive domain family analysis. Nucleic Acids Res, 35: D237–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Markovic I, Pulyaeva H, Sokoloff A, et al. 1998. Membrane fusion mediated by baculovirus gp64 involves assembly of stable gp64 trimers into multiprotein aggregates. J Cell Biol, 143: 1155–1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    McCarthy C B, Dai X, Donly C, et al. 2008. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac142, a core gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment. Virology, 372: 325–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    McCarthy C B, Theilmann D A. 2008. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene. Virology, 375: 277–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    McCleskey E W, Fox A P, Feldman D H. 1987. Omega-Conotoxin: Direct and persistent blockade of specific types of calcium channels in neurons but not muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 84: 4327–4331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    McLachlin J R, Escobar J C, Harrelson J A, et al. 2001. Deletions in the Ac-iap1 gene of the baculovirus AcMNPV occur spontaneously during serial passage and confer a cell line-specific replication advantage. Virus Res, 81: 77–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    McLachlin J R, Miller L K. 1998. A baculovirus mutant defective in PKIP, a protein which interacts with a virus-encoded protein kinase. Virology, 246: 379–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    McLachlin J R, Miller L K. 1994. Identification and characterization of vlf-1, a baculovirus gene involved in very late gene expression. J Virol, 68: 7746–7756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Merrington C L, Kitts P A, King L A, et al. 1996. An Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus lef-2 mutant: consequences for DNA replication and very late gene expression. Virology, 217: 338–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mikhailov V S, Okano K, Rohrmann G F. 2003. Baculovirus alkaline nuclease possesses a 5′->3′ exonuclease activity and associates with the DNA-binding protein LEF-3. J Virol, 77: 2436–2444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mikhailov V S, Okano K, Rohrmann G F. 2004. Specificity of the endonuclease activity of the baculovirus alkaline nuclease for single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem, 279: 14734–14745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mikhailov V S, Rohrmann G F. 2002. Baculovirus replication factor LEF-1 is a DNA primase. J Virol, 76: 2287–2297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Mikhailov V S, Vanarsdall A L, Rohrmann G F. 2008. Isolation and characterization of the DNA-binding protein (DBP) of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology, 370: 415–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Milks M L, Washburn J O, Willis L G, et al. 2003. Deletion of pe38 attenuates AcMNPV genome replication, budded virus production, and virulence in Heliothis virescens. Virology, 310: 224–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Mishra G, Chadha P, Das R H. 2008. Serine/threonine kinase (pk-1) is a component of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) very late gene transcription complex and it phosphorylates a 102 kDa polypeptide of the complex. Virus Res, 137: 147–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Mishra G, Gautam H K, Das R H. 2007. Serine/Threonine kinase dependent transcription from the polyhedrin promoter of SpltNPV-I. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 358: 942–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Monsma S A, Blissard G W. 1995. Identification of a membrane fusion domain and an oligomerization domain in the baculovirus GP64 envelope fusion protein. J Virol, 69: 2583–2595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Monsma S A, Oomens A G, Blissard G W. 1996. The GP64 envelope fusion protein is an essential baculovirus protein required for cell-to-cell transmission of infection. J Virol, 70: 4607–4616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Morris T D, Todd J W, Fisher B, et al. 1994. Identification of lef-7: a baculovirus gene affecting late gene expression. Virology, 200: 260–269.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Nie Y, Fang M, Theilmann D A. 2009. AcMNPV AC16 (DA26, BV/ODV-E26) regulates the levels of IE0 and IE1 and binds to both proteins via a domain located within the acidic transcriptional activation domain. Virology, 385: 484–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Niegowski D, Eshaghi S. 2007. The CorA family: Structure and function revisited. Cell Mol Life Sci, 64: 2564–2574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    O’Reilly D R. 1997. Auxiliary genes of baculoviruses. In: The baculoviruses(Miller L K. ed.), New York: Plenum, p 267–300Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    O’Reilly D R, Crawford A M, Miller L K. 1989. Viral proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Nature, 337: 606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    O’Reilly D R, Miller L K. 1989. A baculovirus blocks insect molting by producing ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase. Science, 245: 1110–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    O’Reilly D R, Miller L K. 1991. Improvement of a baculovirus pesticide by deletion of the egt gene. Nat. Biotechnol, 9: 1086–1089.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    O’Reilly D R, Passarelli A L, Goldman I F, et al. 1990. Characterization of the da26 gene in a hypervariable region of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome. J Gen Virol, 71: 1029–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ohkawa T, Rowe A R, Volkman L E. 2002. Identification of six Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus early genes that mediate nuclear localization of G-actin. J Virol, 76: 12281–12289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ohkawa T, Washburn J O, Sitapara R, et al. 2005. Specific binding of Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus occlusion-derived virus to midgut cells of Heliothis virescens larvae is mediated by products of pif genes Ac119 and Ac022 but not by Ac115. J Virol, 79: 15258–15264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Okano K, Mikhailov V S, Maeda S. 1999. Colocalization of baculovirus IE-1 and two DNA-binding proteins, DBP and LEF-3, to viral replication factories. J Virol, 73: 110–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Okano K, Vanarsdall A L, Mikhailov V S, et al. 2006. Conserved molecular systems of the Baculoviridae. Virology, 344: 77–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Okano K, Vanarsdall A L, Rohrmann G F. 2007. A baculovirus alkaline nuclease knockout construct produces fragmented DNA and aberrant capsids. Virology, 359: 46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Okano K, Vanarsdall A L, Rohrmann G F. 2004. Characterization of a baculovirus lacking the alkaline nuclease gene. J Virol, 78: 10650–10656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ollmann M, Young L M, Di Como C J, et al. 2000. Drosophila p53 is a structural and functional homolog of the tumor suppressor p53. Cell, 101: 91–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Olszewski J, Miller L K. 1997. Identification and characterization of a baculovirus structural protein, VP1054, required for nucleocapsid formation. J Virol, 71: 5040–5050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Olszewski J, Miller L K. 1997. A role for baculovirus GP41 in budded virus production. Virology, 233: 292–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Omi R, Goto M, Miyahara I, et al. 2007. Crystal structure of monofunctional histidinol phosphate phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Biochemistry, 46: 12618–12627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Oomens A G P, Blissard G W. 1999. Requirement for GP64 to drive efficient budding of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology, 254: 297–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Passarelli A L, Guarino L A. 2007. Baculovirus late and very late gene regulation. Curr. Drug Targets 8: 1103–1115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Passarelli A L, Miller L K. 1994. Identification and transcriptional regulation of the baculovirus lef-6 gene. J Virol, 68: 4458–4467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Passarelli A L, Miller L K. 1994. In vivo and in vitro analyses of recombinant baculoviruses lacking a functional cg30 gene. J Virol, 68: 1186–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Passarelli A L, Miller L K. 1993. Three baculovirus genes involved in late and very late gene expression: ie-1, ie-n, and lef-2. J Virol, 67: 2149–2158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Passarelli A L, Todd J W, Miller L K. 1994. A baculovirus gene involved in late gene expression predicts a large polypeptide with a conserved motif of RNA polymerases. J Virol, 68: 4673–4678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Patmanidi A L, Possee R D, King L A. 2003. Formation of P10 tubular structures during AcMNPV infection depends on the integrity of host-cell microtubules. Virology, 317: 308–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Pearson M N, Russell R L Q, Rohrmann G F. 2001. Characterization of a baculovirus-encoded protein that is associated with infected-cell membranes and budded virions. Virology, 291: 22–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Pham D Q D, Hice R H, Sivasubramanian N, et al. 1993. The 1629-bp open reading frame of the Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a virion structural protein. Gene, 137: 275–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Phanis C G, Miller D P, Cassar S C, et al. 1999. Identification and expression of two baculovirus gp37 genes. J Gen Virol, 80: 1823–1831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Pijlman G P, Dortmans J C F, Vermeesch A M G, et al. 2002. Pivotal role of the non-hr origin of DNA replication in the genesis of defective interfering baculoviruses. J Virol, 76: 5605–5611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Pijlman G P, Pruijssers A J P, Vlak J M. 2003. Identification of pif-2, a third conserved baculovirus gene required for per os infection of insects. J Gen Virol, 84: 2041–2049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Popham H J R, Pellock B J, Robson M, et al. 1998. Characterization of a variant of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus with a non-functional ORF603. Biol Control, 12: 223–230.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Possee R D, Hirst M, Jones L D,et al. 1993. Field tests of genetically engineered baculoviruses. Britsh Crop Protection Council Monograph 55: Opportunities for Molecular Biology in crop production (Beadle D J, Bishop D H L, Copping L G, et al. ed.), Churchill College, Cambridge, UK, p23–36.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Possee R D, Sun T-P, Howard S C, et al. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis 9.4 kbp EcoRI-I and -R (polyhedrin gene) region. Virology, 185: 229–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Prikhod’ko E A, Lu A, Wilson J A, et al. 1999. In vivo and in vitro analysis of baculovirus ie-2 mutants. J Virol, 73: 2460–2468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Prikhod’ko E A, Miller L K. 1999. The baculovirus PE38 protein augments apoptosis induced by trans-activator IE1. J Virol, 73: 6691–6699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Prikhod’ko E A, Miller L K. 1998. Role of baculovirus IE2 and its RING finger in cell cycle arrest. J Virol, 72: 684–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Prikhod’ko G G, Wang Y, Freulich E, et al. 1999. Baculovirus p33 binds human p53 and enhances p53-mediated apoptosis. J Virol, 73: 1227–1234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Quadt I, Van Lent J W M, Knebel-Mörsdorf D. 2007. Studies of the silencing of baculovirus DNA binding protein. J Virol, 81: 6122–6127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Raynes D A, Hartshorne D J, Guerriero V, Jr. 1994. Sequence and expression of a baculovirus protein with antigenic similarity to telokin. J Gen Virol, 75: 1807–1809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Reilly L M, Guarino L A. 1994. The pk-1 Gene of Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a protein kinase. J Gen Virol, 75: 2999–3006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Rodems S M, Friesen P D. 1993. The hr5 transcriptional enhancer stimulates early expression from the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome but is not required for virus replication. J Virol, 67: 5776–5785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Roey P V, Meehan L, Kowalski J C, et al. 2002. Catalytic domain structure and hypothesis for function of GIY-YIG intron endonuclease I-tevI. Nat Struct Biol, 9: 806–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Rohrmann G F. 1986. Polyhedrin Structure. J Gen Virol, 67: 1499–1513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Roncarati R, Knebel-Mörsdorf D. 1997. Identification of the early actin-rearrangement-inducing factor gene, arif-1, from Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Virol, 71: 7933–7941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Russell R L Q, Funk C J, Rohrmann G F. 1997. Association of a baculovirus-encoded protein with the capsid basal region. Virology, 227: 142–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Russell R L Q, Rohrmann G F. 1993. A 25-kDa protein is associated with the envelopes of occluded baculovirus virions. Virology, 195: 532–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Russell R L Q, Rohrmann G F. 1997. Characterization of P91, a protein associated with virions of an Orgyia pseudotsugata baculovirus. Virology, 233: 210–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Saville G P, Patmanidi A L, Possee R D, et al. 2004. Deletion of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus chitinase KDEL motif and in vitro and in vivo analysis of the modified virus. J Gen Virol, 85: 821–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Schetter C, Oellig C, Doerfler W. 1990. An insertion of insect cell DNA in the 81-map-unit segment of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA. J Virol, 64: 1844–1850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Schultz K L W, Wetter J A, Fiore D C, et al. 2009. Transactivator IE1 is required for baculovirus early replication events that trigger apoptosis in permissive and non-permissive cells. J Virol, 83: 262–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Shan L, Wang L, Yin J, et al. 2006. An OriP/EBNA-1-based baculovirus vector with prolonged and enhanced transgene expression. J Gene Med, 8: 1400–1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sharma M, Ellis R L, Hinton D M. 1992. Identification of a family of bacteriophage T4 genes encoding proteins similar to those present in group I introns of fungi and phage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 89: 6658–6662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Shen Z, Jacobs-Lorena M. 1998. A type I peritrophic matrix protein from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae binds to chitin J Biol Chem, 273: 17665–17670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Shi S-L, Pan M-H, Lu C. 2007. Characterization of Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus p11 gene, a homologue of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus orf108. Virus Genes, 35: 97–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Simon O, Williams T, Caballero P, et al. 2008. Effects of Acp26 on in vitro and in vivo productivity, pathogenesis and virulence of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virus Res, 136: 202–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Slack J, Arif B M. 2006. The baculoviruses occlusion-derived virus: virion structure and function. Adv Virus Res, 69: 99–165.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Slack J M, Lawrence S D, Krell P J, et al. 2008. Trypsin cleavage of the baculovirus occlusion-derived virus attachment protein P74 is prerequisite in per os infection. J Gen Virol, 89: 2388–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Slavicek J M, Hayes-Plazolles N. 2003. The Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus contains the capsid-associated p24 protein gene. Virus Genes, 26: 15–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Stewart T M, Huijskens I, Willis L G, et al. 2005. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ie0-ie1 gene complex is essential for wild-type virus replication, but either IE0 or IE1 can support virus growth. J Virol, 79: 4619–4629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Stokes D L. 2007. Desmosomes from a structural perspective. Curr Opin Cell Biol, 19: 565–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Summers M D. 2006. Milestones leading to the genetic engineering of baculoviruses as expression vector systems and viral esticides. Adv Virus Res, 68: 3–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Takagi T, Taylor G S, Kusakabe T, et al. 1998. A protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein from baculovirus has RNA 5′-triphosphatase and diphosphatase activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95: 9808–9812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Tang X-D, Xu Y-P, Yu L-l, et al. 2008. Characterization of a Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus with Bmvp80 disruption. Virus Res, 138: 81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Terlau H, Olivera B M. 2004. Conus venoms: A rich source of novel ion channel-targeted peptides. Physiol. Rev. 84: 41–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Theilmann D A, Blissard G W. 2008. Baculoviruses: Molecular biology of nucleopolyhedroviruses. Encyclopedia of Virology, Oxford: Academic Press, p254–265Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Thiem S M, Miller L K. 1989. A baculovirus gene with a novel transcription pattern encodes a polypeptide with a zinc finger and a leucine zipper. J Virol, 63: 4489–4497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Thiem S M, Miller L K. 1989. Identification, sequence, and transcriptional mapping of the major capsid protein gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Virol, 63: 2008–2018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Thomas C J, Brown H L, Hawes C R, et al. 1998. Localization of a baculovirus-induced chitinase in the insect cell endoplasmic reticulum. J Virol, 72: 10207–10212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Todd J W, Passarelli A L, Miller L K. 1995. Eighteen baculovirus genes, including lef-11, p35, 39K, and p47, support late gene expression. J Virol, 69: 968–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Tomalski M D, Eldridge R, Miller L K. 1991. A baculovirus homolog of a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene. Virology, 184: 149–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Vail P V, Sutter G, Jay D L, et al. 1971. Reciprocal infectivity of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of the cabbage looper and alfalfa looper. J Invertebr Pathol, 17: 383–388.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    van Oers M M, Vlak J M. 1997. The baculovirus 10-kDa protein. J Invertebr Pathol, 70: 1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    van Oers M M, Vlak J M. 2007. Baculovirus genomics. Curr Drug Targets, 8: 1051–1068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Vanarsdall A L, Mikhailov V S, Rohrmann G F. 2007. Characterization of a baculovirus lacking the DBP (DNA-binding protein) gene. Virology, 364: 475–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Vanarsdall A L, Okano K, Rohrmann G F. 2004. Characterization of a baculovirus with a deletion of vlf-1. Virology, 326: 191–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Vanarsdall A L, Okano K, Rohrmann G F. 2005. Characterization of the replication of a baculovirus mutant lacking the DNA polymerase gene. Virology, 331: 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Vanarsdall A L, Pearson M N, Rohrmann G F. 2007. Characterization of baculovirus constructs lacking either the Ac101, Ac142, or the Ac144 open reading frame. Virology, 367: 187–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Venkaiah B, Viswanathan P, Habib S, et al. 2004. An additional copy of the homologous region (hr1) sequence in the Autographica californica multinucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus genome promotes hyperexpression of foreign genes. Biochemistry, 43: 8143–8151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Vialard J E, Richardson C D. 1993. The 1,629-nucleotide open reading frame located downstream of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene encodes a nucleocapsid-associated phosphoprotein. J Virol, 67: 5859–5866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Wang L, Yu J, Yin C, et al. 2002. Characterization of a J domain gene of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virus Genes, 25: 291–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Wang Y, Wang Q, Liang C, et al. 2008. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus nucleocapsid protein BV/ODV-C42 mediates the nuclear entry of P78/83. J Virol, 82: 4554–4561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Wang Y, Wu W, Li Z, et al. 2007. Ac18 is not essential for the propagation of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology, 367: 71–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Whitford M, Faulkner P. 1992. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of a gene encoding gp41, a structural glycoprotein of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Virol, 66: 4763–4768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Whitford M, Faulkner P. 1992. A structural polypeptide of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus contains O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. J Virol, 66: 3324–3329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Whitt M A, Manning J S. 1988. A phosphorylated 34-kDa protein and a subpopulation of polyhedrin are thiol linked to the carbohydrate layer surrounding a baculovirus occlusion body. Virology, 163: 33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Williams G V, Faulkner P. 1997. Cytological changes and viral morphogenesis during baculovirus infection. In: The baculoviruses(Miller L K. ed.), New York: Plenum Press, p61–107.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Wolgamot G M, Gross C H, Russell R L Q, et al. 1993. Immunocytochemical characterization of P24, a baculovirus capsid-associated protein. J Gen Virol, 74: 103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Wu W, Liang H, Kan J, et al. 2008. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus 38K is a novel nucleocapsid protein that interacts with VP1054, VP39, VP80, and itself. J Virol, 82: 12356–12364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Wu W, Lin T, Pan L, et al. 2006. Autographa cali fornica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus nucleocapsid assembly is interrupted upon deletion of the 38K gene. J Virol, 80: 11475–11485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Wu X, Guarino L A. 2003. Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus orf69 encodes an RNA cap (nucleoside-2′-O)-methyltransferase. J Virol, 77: 3430–3440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Wu Y, Carstens E B. 1998. A baculovirus single-stranded DNA binding protein, LEF-3, mediates the nuclear localization of the putative helicase P143. Virology, 247: 32–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Xi Q, Wang J, Deng R, et al. 2007. Characterization of AcMNPV with a deletion of me53 gene. Virus Genes, 34: 223–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Xu H J, Yang Z N, Wang F, et al. 2006. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF79 encodes a 28-kDa structural protein of the ODV envelope. Arch Virol, 151: 681–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Yamagishi J, Burnett E D, Harwood S H, et al. 2007. The AcMNPV pp31 gene is not essential for productive AcMNPV replication or late gene transcription but appears to increase levels of most viral transcripts. Virology, 365: 34–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Yang S, Miller L K. 1998. Control of baculovirus polyhedrin gene expression by very late factor 1. Virology, 248: 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Yang S, Miller L K. 1998. Expression and mutational analysis of the baculovirus very late factor 1 (vlf-1) gene. Virology, 245: 99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Yuan M, Wu W, Liu C, et al. 2008. A highly conserved baculovirus gene p48 (ac103) is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment. Virology, 379: 87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Zhang J-H, Ohkawa T, Washburn J O, et al. 2005. Effects of Ac150 on virulence and pathogenesis of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in noctuid hosts. J Gen Virol, 86: 1619–1627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Zhou J, Blissard G W. 2008. Identification of a GP64 subdomain involved in receptor binding by budded virions of the baculovirus Autographica californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Virol, 82: 4449–4460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Zhou W, Yao L, Xu H, et al. 2005. The function of envelope protein p74 from Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in primary infection to host. Virus Genes, 30: 139–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Zuidema D, Klinge-Roode E C, Van Lent J W M, et al. 1989. Construction and analysis of an Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus mutant lacking the polyhedral envelope. Virology, 173:98–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David P. A. Cohen
    • 1
  • Martin Marek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bryn G. Davies
    • 3
  • Just M. Vlak
    • 1
  • Monique M. van Oers
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of ViroloWageningen UniversitywageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Bioprocess DevelopmentGénéthonEvryFrance
  3. 3.YCR Cancer Research, Dept. of BiologyUniversity of YorkHeslington, YorkUK

Personalised recommendations