Virology is a branch of biological science dealing with the study of viruses, and medical virology focuses on the study and control of diseases due to viruses that is of medical importance. The development of medical virology in Malaysia has its beginning in the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), following the establishment of the Division of Medical Zoology and Virus Research in the institute on 23 March 1953. The second institution in the country to establish diagnostic and research work in medical virology was Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya. This was followed by University Kebangsaan Malaysia, University Sains Malaysia and University of Sarawak Malaysia. The National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) is the latest institution to establish a laboratory in 2003 for virus isolation and services to support country surveillance and outbreak investigation of infectious diseases due to viruses. In the field of medical virology, Malaysia contributed substantially in the areas of virus diagnostic services, development and research ranging from survey and documentation on the existence and prevalence of viruses causing diseases in Malaysia, clinical presentation and epidemiological features of virus diseases, evaluation of new diagnostic tests to pathogenesis of viral diseases. Malaysia contributed to the discoveries of at least 12 new viruses in the world. ASEAN plus Three (China, Japan, Republic of Korea) Emerging Infectious Programme was established to overcome the challenges and impact of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in this region. Malaysia as the co-ordinator of the laboratory component of the programme, contributed to strengthen the regional laboratory capability, capacity, laboratory-based surveillance and networking. The future of medical virology in Malaysia in terms of integration of diagnostic, reference and research to support the country’s need will be enhanced and strengthened with the on-going development of the National Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Malaysia) which also incorporates a futuristic Special Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory.
Calisher C H, Karabatsos N, Dalrymple J M,et al. 1989. Antigenic relationship between Flaviviruses as determined by cross-neutralization tests with polyclonal antiser. J Gen Virol, 70: 37–43.
Cann A J. 2005. Principles of Molecular Virology. Amsterdam. Academic Press.
Cardosa M J, Baharudin F, Hamid S,et al. 1995. A nitrocellulose membrane based IgM capture enzyme immunoassay for etiological diagnosis of dengue virus infections. Clin Diagn Virol, 3: 343–350.
Cardosa M J, Tio P H, Nimmannit S,et al. 1992. IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 23: 726–729.
Cardosa M J, Wang S M, Sum M S,et al. 2002. Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. BMC Microbiol, 2: 9–13.
Cardosa M J, Zuraini I. 1991. Comparison of an IgM capture ELISA with a dot enzyme immunoassay for laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infections. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 22: 337–340.
Ch’ng S L, How V J, Soon K F,et al. 1987. Dissociation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from immobilized anti-HBsAg antibody in a two site im- munoradiometric assay: its relevance to hook effect and recycled assay. J immunoassay, 8: 237–245.
Chan Y F, AbuBakar S. 2003. Enterovirus 71 infection induces apoptosis in Vero cells. Malays J Pathol, 25: 29–35.
Chen S T, Lam S K. 1985. Optimum age for measles immunization in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 16: 493–499.
Chua B H, Mcminn P C, Lam S K,et al. 2001. Comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 7 (strain ummc) and the prototype (wallace) strain demonstrates significant genetic drift over time. J Gen Virol, 82: 2629–2639.
Chua K B. 1999. The Association of Uvulo-Palatoglossal Junctional Ulcers with Exanthem Subitum: A 10-year paediatric outpatient study. Med J Malaysia, 54: 58–63.
Chua K B. 2003. A novel approach of collecting samples from fruit bats for isolation of infectious agents. Microbes Infect, 5: 487–490.
Chua K B, Bellini W J, Rota P A,et al. 2000. Nipah Virus: A Newly Emergent Deadly Paramyxovirus. Science, 288: 1432–1435.
Chua K B, Chua K H, Chua I-Ly,et al. 2004. A new cell culture tube in diagnostic virology for virus isolation. Malaysian J Pathol, 26: 69–71.
Chua K B, Crameri G, Hyatt A D,et al. 2007. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104: 11424–11429.
Chua K B, Khairullah N S, Lim S T,et al. 1996. Infectious Mononucleosis-like syndrome due to Human Herpesvirus-6-A Report of five cases. Med J Malaysia, 51: 323–327.
Chua K B, Lam S K, Sazaly AbuBakar. 1998. Isolation and Identification of Human Herpesvirus 7 from an infant with Exanthem Subitum. Med J Malaysia, 53: 296–301.
Chua K B, Wang L F, Lam S K,et al. 2001. Tioman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Virology, 283(2): 215–229.
Field J W, Green R, Byron F E. 1950. The Institute for Medical Research Kuala Lumpur (1900–1950). Fifty years of medical research in Malaya. Kuala Lumpur, Government Press, Jubilee volume, No. 25.
Gaunt M W, Sall A A, de Lamballerie X,et al. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of flaviviruses correlate with their epidemiology, disease association and biogeography. J Gen Virol, 82: 1867–1876.
Gubler D J, Rosen L. 1976. A simple technique for demonstrating transmission of dengue virus by mosquitoes without the use of vertebrate hosts. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 25(1): 146–150.
Gubler D J, Rosen L. 1977. Quantitative aspects of replication of dengue viruses in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) after oral and parenteral infection. J Med Entomol, 13(4–5): 469–472.
Iyngkaran N, Abidin Z, Lam S K,et al. 1980. Acute gastroenteritis in Malaysian children: aetio- logical and therapeutic considerations. Med J Malaysia, 34: 403–408.
Iyngkaran N, Yadav M, Sinniah M. 1995. Augmented inflammatory cytokines in primary dengue infection progressing to shock. Singapore Med J, 36: 218–221.
Kamath S, How V J, Lam S K,et al. 1973. Hepatitis B antigen in Kuala Lumpur blood donors. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 4: 159–164.
Khairullah N S, Lam S K. 1995, Evaluation of WHO monoclonal antibody kit for diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infections. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 26: 263–267.
Kumarasamy V, Asmah Hani Abdul Wahab, Chua S K,et al. 2007. Evaluation of a Commercial Dengue NS1 Antigen-Capture ELISA for Laboratory Diagnosis of Acute Dengue Virus Infection. J Virol Methods, 140: 75–79.
Kumarasamy V, Chua S K, Zuridah bt Hassan,et al. 2007. Evaluating the sensitivity of PLATELIATM DENGUE NS1 antigen-capture ELISA for early diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. Singapore Med J, 48(7): 669–673.
Kumarasamy V, Prathapa Senan, Zuridah bt Hassan,et al. 2006. Re-emergence of chikungunya virus in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia, 61: 221–225.
Kumarasamy V, Zuridah bt Hassan, Asmah Hani Abdul Wahab,et al. 2007. A Comparative Study on the Performance of Two Commercial Anti-Dengue IgM Assay Kits. Med J Malaysia, 62: 85–86.
Kuno G, Chang G J J, Tsuchira R K,et al. 1998. Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. J Virol, 72: 73–83.
Lam S K, Chew C B, Poon G K,et al. 1986. Isolation of dengue viruses by intracerebral inoculation of mosquito larvae. J Virol Methods, 14: 133–140.
Lam S K, Devine P L. 1998. Evaluation of capture ELISA and rapid immunochromatographic test for the determination of IgM and IgG antibodies produced during dengue infections. Clin Diagn Virol, 10: 75–81.
Lam S K, How V J, Pang T. 1979. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of HbsAg. Malays J Pathol, 2: 63–67.
Levine A J. 1996. The Origins of Virology. In: Fields Virology (Fields B N, Knipe D M, Howley P M, et al. ed). 3rd ed. Philadelphia. Lippincott-Raven, p1–14.
Lum L C S, Lam S K, Wong K T,et al. 1998. Neurologic pulmonary oedema and enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis. Lancet, 352: 1391.
Mandl C W, Iacono-Connors L, Wallner G,et al. 1991. Sequence of the genes encoding the structural proteins of the low-virulence tick-borne Flaviviruses Langat TP21 and Yelantsev. Virology, 185: 891–895.
Mangalam S, Tan D S K, Vijayamalar B,et al. 1986. Markers of hepatitis B virus infection in asymptomatic drug abusers in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 17: 209–213
Murphy F A, Gibbs E P J, Horzinek M C,et al. 2005. Veterinary Virology (3rd edition). San Diego. Academic Press, Chapter 1: 3–22.
Niedobitek G, Young L S, Sam C K,et al. 1992. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus genes and of lymphocyte activitation moleculaes in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Am J Pathol, 140: 879–887.
Ong S B, Lam K L, Lam S K. 1882. Viral agents of acute respiratory infections in young children in Kuala Lumpur. Bull World Health Organ, 60: 137–140.
Ooi H L, Cheong S M, Yogeswery S,et al. 2006. Congenital rubella syndrome with positive serology and virus isolation. Med J Malaysia, 61: 248–250.
Padmanathan A, Yadav M, Gregory A R,et al. 1997. Human papillomavirus DNA and virus-encoded antigens in cervical carcinoma. Med J Malaysia, 52: 108–116.
Pang T. 1987. Studies into the immunopathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 16: 612–616.
Pang T, Devi S, Blanden R V, Lam S K. 1988. T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against dengue-infected target cells. Microbiol Immunol, 32: 511–518.
Pfeffer M, Proebster B, Kinney R M, Kaaden O R. 1997. Genus-specific detection of Alphaviruses by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 57(6): 709–718.
Powers A M, Brault A C, Shirako Y,et al. 2001. Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the Alphaviruses. J Virol, 75: 10118–10131.
Pritchard L I, Chua K B, Cummins D,et al. 2006. Pulau virus: a new member of the genus Orthoreovirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Arch Virol, 151: 229–239.
Ramanathan K, Cheah W C, Jr. Dondero T J. 1976. The Institute for Medical Research Kuala Lumpur (1901–1976). Seventy-five years of medical research in Malaysia. Petaling Jaya. Percetakan P.K.S. Sdn. Bhd.
Sam C K, Brooks L A, Niedobitek G,et al. 1993. Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus infection in nasopharyngeal biopsies from a group at high risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer, 53: 957–962.
Shafee N, AbuBakar S. 2003. Dengue virus type 2 NS3 protease and NS2B-NS3 protease precursor induce apoptosis. J Gen Virol, 84: 2191–2195.
Smith C E G. 1956. A virus resembling Russian Spring-Summer Encephalitis Virus from an ixodid tick in Malaya. Nature, 178: 581–582.
Smith C E G. 1957. A note on the laboratory diagnosis of virus and rickettsial diseases. Med J Malaya 1954; 9: 72–76. Smith CEG. Far East influenza, by CEG smith LH Turner and CJV Helliwell. Br Med J, 1: 1412–1415.
Smith C E G. 1957. A localized outbreak of dengue fever in Kuala Lumpur: serological aspects. J Hyg Camb, 55: 207–223.
Smith C E G. 1958. The distribution of antibodies to Japaneses encephalitis, dengue, and yellow fever viruses in five rural communities in Malaya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 52: 237–252.
Solomon T, Thao L T, Dung N M,et al. 1998. Rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis by using an immunoglobulin M dot enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol, 36: 2030–2034.
Strauss E G, Strauss J H, Levine A J.et al. 1996. In: Fields Virology (Fields B N, Knipe D M, Howley P M, et al. ed.), 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 153–171.
Tan D S K. 1965. A review of virus infections of the respiratory tract. Med J Malaya, 19: 201–212.
Tan D S K. 1967. Poliomyelitis in West Malaysia. Med J Malaya, 21: 45–51.
Tan D S K. 1967. Recent findings on the common cold. Med J Malaya, 21: 247–253.
Tan D S K. 1968. Entero- and myxoviral infections of the central nervous system. Med J Malaya, 23: 140–145.
Tan D S K. 1969. The importance of Malaysian bats in the transmission of viral diseases, by DSK Tan, AJ Beck and Mohamed Omar. Med J Malaya, 24: 32–35.
Tan D S K. 1971. An outbreak of Hongkong influenza in a youth camp in West Malaysia. Med J Malaya, 25: 263–268.
Tan D S K, Dimitrakakis M, Mangalam S,et al. 1989. Prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection in Malaysia. Singapore Med J, 30: 34–37.
Tan E L, Peh S C, Sam C K. 2003. Analysis of Eptein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in Malaysian nasopharyngeal carcinoma: high prevalence of 30-bp deletion, Xho1 polymorphism and evidence of dual infections. J Med Virol, 69: 251–257.
Tan E L, Selvaratnam G, Kananathan R,et al. 2006. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, transforming growth factorbeta and stem cell factor in plasm of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. BMC Cancer, 6: 227–233.
Tan D S K, Smith C E G, McMahon D A,et al. 1967. Lanjan virus, a new agent isolated from Der- macentor auratus in Malaya. Nature, 214: 1154–1155.
Tee E S, Lopez J B, Ng K H,et al. 2000. 100 Years of the IMR (Institute for Medical Research)
Tio P H, Jong W W, Cardosa M J. 2005. Two dimensional VOPBA reveals laminin receptor (LAMR1) interaction with dengue virus serotype 1, 2 and 3. Virol J, 2: 25–28.
Wong S C, Ooi M H, Abdullah A R,et al. 2008. A decade of Japanese encephalitis surveillance in Sarawak, Malaysia: 1997–2006. Trop Med Int Health, 13: 52–55.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Chua, K.B. Medical virology in Malaysia. Virol. Sin. 24, 81–92 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-009-3014-7
- Medical Virology