Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 309–318 | Cite as

Probing Influence of Solvent on Polymorphic Transformation of Carbamazepine Using Electrospray Technology

  • Sharvil PatilEmail author
  • Kumudni Xalxo
  • Kakasaheb Mahadik
Original Article



The objective of the current work was to investigate the influence of electrospray technology using various solvents on polymorphic transformations of carbamazepine (CBZ). CBZ was taken as a model drug for electrospray crystallization owing to its well investigated polymorphic forms.


Saturated CBZ solutions (methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol) were electrosprayed at 20 kV to obtain CBZ crystals. The electrosprayed crystals from methanol (MCBZ), ethanol (ECBZ), and 2-propanol (PCBZ) were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, equilibrium solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and stability study.


MCBZ exhibited mixture of form I and II of CBZ, whereas mixture of form I, II, and III of CBZ was observed in case of ECBZ. Further, PCBZ contained mixture of form II, III, and IV of CBZ. The order in which reduction in saturation solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate was observed, it can be represented as MCBZ > PCBZ > ECBZ > unprocessed CBZ. Electrospray technology induced polymorphic transformations in CBZ crystals. The said polymorphic transformations were influenced by solvent properties along with an electric charge.


Thus electrospray crystallization, a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing technique, can serve as an alternative for crystallization of API with an ability to modify their physicochemical properties.


Carbamazepine Electrospray crystallization Polymorphs Intrinsic dissolution Crystals 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharvil Patil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kumudni Xalxo
    • 1
  • Kakasaheb Mahadik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Poona College of PharmacyBharati Vidyapeeth Deemed UniversityPuneIndia

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