Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 143–155 | Cite as

Assessment of Pregelatinized Sorghum and Maize Starches as Superior Multi-functional Excipients

  • Daud Baraka Abdallah
  • Naseem Ahmad CharooEmail author
  • Abubakr Suliman Elgorashi
Original Article



Research exploring pharmaceutical applications of native sorghum and maize crops is needed to improve their economic competitiveness.


This work assesses the physicochemical and compressional attributes of pregelatinized sorghum and maize starches originating from Sudan and determines whether these attributes are superior than existing starches in pursuit of achieving quality attributes of pharmaceutical dosage formulations.


The effects of pregelatinization temperature, starch concentration, and wet massing time were studied in 23 full factorial design. The relevant physical and functional properties such as particle morphology, compressibility index, porosity, particle size distribution, lubricant sensitivity, Heckel and Kawakita plots, and dissolution were systematically examined.


The Hausner ratios (HRs) of unmodified sorghum (1.48) and maize starch (1.39) decreased to 1.22 on pregelatinization. The Heckel parameter of pregelatinized sorghum and maize starches were 29.4 and 17.5, respectively, indicating a high degree of plastic deformation. Low elastic recovery value of 0.29 % indicated low capping and lamination tendency. The coordination number of 8.7 which corresponded to bed voidage of approximately 45 % and Kawakita analysis supported densification by particle rearrangement at low compaction pressures. Swelling power increased fourfold compared to unmodified starches resulting in the faster disintegration of tablets. More than 80 % of drug was released after 10 min from all the formulations. Although lubrication sensitivity values increased marginally, no effect on disintegration time was seen.


The pregelatinized starches mainly sorghum possess superior physical and functional properties and can accommodate minor changes in the formulation composition or process.


Compression properties Disintegration time Heckel plot Pregelatinized starch Swelling power 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daud Baraka Abdallah
    • 1
  • Naseem Ahmad Charoo
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Abubakr Suliman Elgorashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of PharmacyAl Ribat UniversityKhartoumSudan
  2. 2.AlFalah Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd.BudgamIndia
  3. 3.Zeno TherapeuticsDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

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