Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 19–29 | Cite as

Development of a Design Space for a Unit Operation: Illustration Using Compression-Mix Blending Process for the Manufacture of a Tablet Dosage Form

  • Shiva G. KapsiEmail author
  • Lan D. Castro
  • Fran X. Muller
  • Thomas J. Wrzosek
Research Article


This paper describes the development of an orthogonal design space for a compression-mix blending unit operation for the manufacture of tablet dosage form using an empirical approach. Potential critical process parameters identified through a risk assessment process were assessed through a full-factorial design of experiment for impact on material attributes and drug product critical quality attributes (DP CQA). The impact on each individual attribute measured as responses were subjected to statistical analysis by analysis of variance and regression models were built on the statistically significant effects (p < 0.05). Design space for relevant DP CQA was created using 95% predicted interval estimates. Orthogonal design space for the unit operation was proposed by overlaying design spaces generated for individual DP CQAs. The resulting orthogonal design space made implementation of manufacturing flexibility in to routine manufacturing process and into control strategy simpler and straightforward.


Quality by design (QbD) Design space Drug product CQA Predicted interval Design of experiments 



The authors greatly acknowledge and thank Lindsay Wylie for the review and useful input on the manuscript and Nathaniel Schuster for his help and support with analytical testing.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shiva G. Kapsi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lan D. Castro
    • 1
  • Fran X. Muller
    • 1
  • Thomas J. Wrzosek
    • 2
  1. 1.Product DevelopmentGSK Pharmaceutical R&DCollegevilleUSA
  2. 2.Statistics and ProgrammingGSK Pharmaceutical R&DKing of PrussiaUSA

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