Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 51–62 | Cite as

The Engineering of Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination Systems

  • Stefan Radl
  • Stefanie Ortner
  • Radompon Sungkorn
  • Johannes G. KhinastEmail author
Research Paper


In this article, the latest developments for designing hydrogen peroxide decontamination systems are analyzed. Specifically, focus is given to the accurate calculation of hydrogen peroxide condensation phenomena and discussion of a new correlation for its accurate prediction. A procedure for calculating the condensate composition or the dew point out of this correlation is detailed, and an h–x diagram for moist, hydrogen peroxide-laden air, which is of fundamental importance for the rational design of hydrogen peroxide decontamination systems, is proposed. Also presented are theoretical results that illustrate the effect of condensation and evaporation in these systems. Finally, some perspectives for improving hydrogen peroxide systems, and the role computational fluid dynamics (CFD) may have in this field, are provided.


Hydrogen peroxide Decontamination Pharmaceutical engineering Condensation Mollier hx diagram 


Latin letters


Total inner surface area of the DHP chamber [m²]


Parameters of the Redlich–Kister equation [J/kmol]


Concentration of species i in the gas phase [mg/l]


Saturation concentration of species i over the liquid film [mg/l]


Heat capacity of species i in the gas phase [kJ/kmol.K]


Heat capacity of the chamber wall material [kJ/kg.K]


Dimensionless concentration of inlet gas

Cμ, C1ε, C2ε

Constants for the turbulence model


Diffusion coefficient of species i in air [m2/s]


Target function for the dew point iteration [Pa]


Gravitational acceleration [m/s2]


Specific enthalpy [kJ/kmol]

h1 + x

Enthalpy [kJ/kgdry air]


Heat of vaporization of species i [kJ/kmol]


Turbulent kinetic energy [m2/s2]


Molecular weight of species i [g/mol]


Mass of the DHP chamber walls [kg]

\( \dot{N}_{{{\text{cond}},i}} \left( {c_i } \right) \)

Molar condensation rate of species i [kmol/s]


Molar amount of species i in the liquid phase [kmol]

\( \dot{Q}_{\text{loss}} \)

Heat loss [W]


Pressure [Pa]


Vapor pressure for species i in a liquid mixture [Pa]


Vapor pressure of pure species i [Pa]


Total pressure [Pa]

\( \vec{R} \)

Reynolds stress tensor [m2/s2]


Molar gas constant, 8.314472 [J/mol.K]


Gas constant for air, 287.05 [J/kg.K]


Rayleigh number


turbulent Schmidt number


temperature [K]

\( \vec{U} \)

Velocity vector [m/s]


Chamber volume [m3]

\( \dot{V}_j \)

Volumetric flow rate [m3/s]


Mass fraction of species i


Absolute moisture content of the air [g/kgdry air]


Molar fraction of species i in the liquid phase


Molar fraction of species i in the gas phase


Height level [m]

Greek letters


Effective energy diffusion coefficient [W/m.K]


Heat transfer coefficient [W/m2.K]


Mass transfer coefficient [m2/s]


Energy dissipation rate [m2/s3]


Mass flux vector [kg/m2.s]


Activity coefficient for species i


Turbulent diffusion coefficient [kg/m.s]


Heat conductivity of air [W/m.K]


Turbulence viscosity [Pa.s]


Density [kg/m3]

σk, σε

Constants for the turbulence model



The authors acknowledge financial support of Ortner Cleanrooms Unlimited GmbH.


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Copyright information

© International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Radl
    • 1
  • Stefanie Ortner
    • 2
  • Radompon Sungkorn
    • 1
  • Johannes G. Khinast
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Process and Particle EngineeringGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Ortner Cleanrooms UnlimitedVillachAustria

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