Traffic load–based cell selection for APCO25 conventional–based professional mobile radio

  • 49 Accesses


Wireless communication between public safety officers is very important to transmit voice or data during emergency crises. When the public communication networks cannot provide services during crises, disasters, and high traffic cases, Professional or private mobile radio (PMR) such as Association of Public Safety Communications Officials (APCO25) conventional systems are needed to improve the service quality and to provide uninterrupted service to the users. In this paper, we propose traffic-based cell selection algorithms for the APCO25 conventional systems to attach users to base stations in a balanced manner to reduce waiting time while establishing a connection. The simulation results of the proposed traffic load–based cell selection algorithms are illustrated in terms of the RSSI measurements counter, the number of connection requests, the average waiting time, and the number of re-selections for the APCO25 conventional systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Telecommunications Industry Association (2012) Benefits of project 25 standards

  2. 2.

    Chinipardaz M, Rasti M, Nourhosseini M (2014) An overview of cell association in heterogeneous network: load balancing and interference management perspective. In: 7’th International symposium on telecommunications (IST’2014). IEEE, pp 1250–1256

  3. 3.

    Olmos JJ, Ferrus R, Galeana-Zapien H (2013) Analytical modeling and performance evaluation of cell selection algorithms for mobile networks with backhaul capacity constraints. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 12 (12):6011–6023

  4. 4.

    AboulHassan MA, Sourour EA, Shaaban SE (2014) Novel cell selection algorithm for improving average user’s effective data rate in LTE HetNets. In: 2014 IEEE symposium on computers and communications (ISCC), pp 1–6

  5. 5.

    Zhao C, Angelakis V, Yuan D, Timus B (2013) Evaluation of cell selection algorithms in LTE-Advanced relay networks. In: 2013 IEEE 18th international workshop on computer aided modeling and design of communication links and networks (CAMAD), pp 114–118

  6. 6.

    Wang J, Liu J, Wang D, Pang J, Shen G (2011) Optimized fairness cell selection for 3GPP LTE-A macro-pico HetNets. In: 2011 IEEE vehicular technology conference (VTC Fall), pp 1–5

  7. 7.

    Jo HS, Sang YJ, Xia P, Andrews JG (2012) Heterogeneous cellular networks with flexible cell association: a comprehensive downlink SINR analysis. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 11(10):3484–3495

  8. 8.

    Balachandran K, Kang JH, Karakayali K, Rege K (2011) Cell selection with downlink resource partitioning in heterogeneous networks. In: 2011 IEEE International conference on communications workshops (ICC), pp 1–6

  9. 9.

    Tian P, Tian H, Zhu J, Chen L, She X (2011) An adaptive bias configuration strategy for range extension in LTE-advanced heterogeneous networks. In: IET International conference on communication technology and application (ICCTA 2011), pp 336–340

  10. 10.

    Kamal A, Mathai V (2014) A novel cell selection method for LTE HetNet. In: 2014 International conference on communication and signal processing, pp 738–742

  11. 11.

    Qu T, Xiao D, Yang D, Jin W, He Y (2010) Cell selection analysis in outdoor heterogeneous networks. In: 2010 3rd International conference on advanced computer theory and engineering (ICACTE), vol 5, pp V5–554

  12. 12.

    Yılmaz S, Özbek B, Taş M, Bardak ED (2016) Load based cell selection algorithm for digital mobile radio. In: 2016 8th International congress on ultra modern telecommunications and control systems and workshops (ICUMT), pp 158–163

  13. 13.

    Yilmaz SS, Özbek B, Taş M, Bengür S (2017) Cell load based user association for professional mobile radio systems. In: 2017 10th international conference on electrical and electronics engineering (ELECO), pp 651–655

  14. 14.

    Karataş A, Özbek B, Sönmez İ, Bengür S (2016) Load based cell selection algorithm for Tetra based professional mobile radio. In: 2016 24th Telecommunications forum (TELFOR), pp 1–4

  15. 15.

    Karataş A, Özbek B, Bardak ED, Sönmez İ (2017) Cell load based user association for TETRA trunk systems. In: 2017 10th International conference on electrical and electronics engineering (ELECO), pp 646–650

  16. 16.

    ETSI Technical Specification 102 361-4, V1.2.1 (2006) Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); digital mobile radio (DMR) aystems Part 4: DMR trunking protocol

  17. 17.

    TAIT Radio Communications (2010) Technologies and standards for mobile radio communications networks

  18. 18.

    ETSI Technical Specification 102 361-1 V2.2.1 (2013) Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); digital mobile radio (DMR) systems; Part 1: DMR air interface (AI) protocol

  19. 19.

    ETSI Technical Report 143 030 V11.0.0 (2012) Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Radio network planning aspects

  20. 20.

    TIA Telecommunications Systems Bulletin TSB-88.2-D,Wireless Communications Systems, Performance in Noise and Interference, Limited Situations, Part 2: Propagation & Noise, January 2012

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Saadet Simay Yılmaz.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yılmaz, S.S., Özbek, B., Taş, M. et al. Traffic load–based cell selection for APCO25 conventional–based professional mobile radio. Ann. Telecommun. 75, 77–88 (2020) doi:10.1007/s12243-019-00735-5

Download citation


  • Cell selection
  • Cell re-selection
  • APCO25
  • PMR
  • Traffic aware