Three-dimensional Voronoi Diagram–based Self-deployment Algorithm in IoT Sensor Networks


With the rapid development of 4G/5G technology and the Internet of Things (IoT), data security and privacy problems are becoming more serious. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), as the main data source of IoT, are an important stage to ensure data availability and data privacy protection. In this paper, a novel deployment algorithm for 3D WSNs based on the Voronoi diagram is proposed. The algorithm uses the characteristics of adjacency and fast partition of the Voronoi diagram to realize fast division of the 3D monitoring area, calculates the center of each Voronoi area as the latest position of node, repeatedly builds the Voronoi diagram to maximize the coverage of the monitoring area, and maximizes the availability and integrity of data. At the same time, the 4G/5G communication technology is used to realize communication between nodes, and data encryption is used to improve data security. An improved algorithm is also proposed to adapt to different deployment conditions. In this paper, data and privacy security are protected from data sources, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is tested by computer simulation.

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L.T. and X.T. designed the algorithms, simulation model, and experiments, and performed all tests and analyses for the research work. X.T. was also responsible for preparing the initial draft of the manuscript. A.H. and M.W. contributed to verifying the work and finalizing the manuscript.


This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61702020) and its special supporting fund (PXM2018_014213_000033), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (4172013), and Beijing Technology and Business University graduate research capacity enhancement program.

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Correspondence to Li Tan.

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Tang, X., Tan, L., Hussain, A. et al. Three-dimensional Voronoi Diagram–based Self-deployment Algorithm in IoT Sensor Networks. Ann. Telecommun. 74, 517–529 (2019).

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  • Internet of things (IoT)
  • Data privacy
  • Wireless sensor networks (WSN)
  • 4G/5G
  • Deployment
  • Voronoi diagram
  • Energy consumption