Power reduction strategies with differentiated quality of protection in IP-over-WDM networks


This work considers two important aspects of modern communication networks, network survivability, and energy efficiency. Survivability is a design requirement to provide failure recovery against network outages such as fiber cuts. To ensure survivability, traditionally, spare network (i.e., backup) resources are reserved in case of failures of primary (i.e., working) network resources. On the other hand, energy efficiency is required to cope with the continuous growth of the Internet traffic. Backup resources increase the energy consumption, especially if constantly powered-on. Hence, a trade-off between energy efficiency and network resiliency arises. To increase transport capacity and reduce energy consumption, wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks are adopted as the most practical solution for data transport in core networks, which are the focus of our work. In WDM networks, different levels of protection (i.e., dedicated, shared) can be implemented for different traffic demands, and different protection levels are characterized by different power consumptions. We consider a differentiated quality of protection (Diff-QoP) scheme where different levels of protection are provided. In this context, we investigate on two different power-reduction strategies to be used in protected WDM networks: (i) setting backup devices into low-power modes (sleep mode) and (ii) adapting the devices (i.e., transmitting/receiving equipment) usage to hourly traffic variations. We present exact modeling through Integer Linear Program (ILP) of the three scenarios and a provisioning algorithm to solve the problem of power minimized design of resilient optical core networks, under static and dynamic traffic conditions. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm under static traffic conditions by comparing the obtained results with the optimal solution, in absence of traffic grooming. We show that the proposed heuristic reduces the computational time by three orders of magnitude with an optimality gap ranging from 8.88 up to 23.88%. Furthermore, we include traffic grooming and solve the problem under dynamic traffic conditions. Our findings show that enabling sleep mode (SM) for backup devices can help reduce total power consumption up to 20 and up to 38% when considering with Diff-QoP. Finally, adapting the number of transmitting/receiving devices to actual traffic needs guarantees power savings up to 80%, especially during off-peak hours.

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  1. 1.

    The term optical bypass indicates that connections are provisioned through a single lightpath from source to destination, with no electronic processing at intermediate nodes.

  2. 2.

    Note that multiple demands can be groomed together, at the IP layer, into one single lightpath if and only if the already established lightpath has enough channel capacity available, and the nodes where grooming is performed dispose of one free grooming-add port and one free grooming-drop per demand.

  3. 3.

    We compute the power consumption of the 40 Gbit/s transponder, in idle state, as 40% of the power consumption of the 100 Gbit/s transponder given in [22]. However, we neglect some contributions, i.e., local oscillators and digital signal processor, as they are needed only for the 100 Gbit/s coherent technology, and client-side.

  4. 4.

    Note that, in general, a different number of wavelengths can be routed over a link in the two directions. Therefore, as we assume that “bidirectional” transponders (i.e., capable of transmitting and receiving) are deployed, for each link, the number of transponders needed at its edge must be equal to the maximum of the number of wavelengths flowing in both directions, i.e., I m,n = m a x{w m,n ,w n,m }, F m,n = m a x{p m,n ,p n,m }.

  5. 5.

    As the number of wavelengths carried by a link cannot exceed its capacity (see Eq. 7), the value of M can be set as equal to W.

  6. 6.

    Note that for all traffic scenarios, the connection demands that fall into each traffic class, reported in Table 2, are selected randomly.

  7. 7.

    In Fig. 7, we use the term link to refer to bidirectional links.


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This article is based upon work from COST Action CA15127 (“Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

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Hmaity, A., Musumeci, F. & Tornatore, M. Power reduction strategies with differentiated quality of protection in IP-over-WDM networks. Ann. Telecommun. 73, 81–94 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12243-017-0621-4

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  • Differentiated quality-of-protection
  • Reliable optical core networks
  • Dynamic provisioning
  • Resiliency