Femtocells in centralized systems: green operation and radio resource management techniques

Abstract

In this paper, a system of femtocells controlled by a single controller is investigated. In such a scenario, femtocell access points (FAPs) are assumed connected via wired links to a central controller within a certain vicinity (e.g., building, compound, hotel, and campus.). Thus, radio resource management (RRM) and green network operation of LTE femtocell networks are investigated in an integrated wired/wireless system. Consequently, it becomes possible to perform RRM in a centralized and controlled way in order to enhance the quality of service (QoS) performance for the users in the network. Furthermore, energy-efficient operation consisting of switching off redundant FAPs can be implemented. A utility maximization framework is presented, and an RRM algorithm that can be used to maximize various utility functions is proposed. Another algorithm is presented for the scenario of FAP on/off switching to achieve green operation. It consists of selecting the best FAP to switch off, then moving the femto user equipments (FUEs) to other active FAPs without compromising their quality of service (QoS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms lead to significant performance gains.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. 1.

    Yaacoub E (2014) Radio resource management in integrated Wired/Wireless LTE femtocell networks. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on wired and wireless internet communications, Paris, France

  2. 2.

    Andrews JG, Claussen H, Dohler M, Rangan S, Reed MC (2012) Femtocells: past, present, and future. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 30(3):497–508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chandrasekkhar V, Andrews JG, Gatherer A (2008) Femtocell networks: a survey. IEEE Commun Mag 46(9):59–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Knisely D, Yoshizawa T, Favichia F (2009) Standardization of femtocells in 3GPP. IEEE Commun Mag 47(9):68–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chandrasekhar V, Kountouris M, Andrews JG (2009) Coverage in multi-antenna two-tier networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 8(10):5314–5327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Pantisano F, Bennis M, Saad W, Debbah M (2012) Spectrum leasing as an incentive towards uplink macrocell and femtocell cooperation. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 30(3):617–630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Gussen C, Belmega V, Debbah M (2011) Pricing and bandwidth allocation problems in wireless multi-tier networks. In: Proceedings of asilomar conference on signals systems and computers, pp 1633–1637

  8. 8.

    Lien S-Y, Tseng C-C, Chen K-C, Su C-W (2010) Cognitive radio resource management for QoS guarantees in autonomous femtocell networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications, (ICC 2010), pp 1–6

  9. 9.

    Hong S, Oh C-Y, Lee T-J (2013) Resource allocation method using channel sensing and resource reuse for cognitive femtocells. International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering 3(3):309–312

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Abdelmonem MA, Nafie M, Ismail MH, El-Soudani MS (2012) Optimized spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive LTE femtocells. EURASIP J Wirel Commun Netw 2012(6):19. (Open Access)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hasan SF, Siddique NH, Chakraborty S (May 2009) Femtocell versus WiFi - a survey and comparison of architecture and performance. In: Proceedings of wireless VITAE, pp 916–920

  12. 12.

    Mukherjee A, Cheng J-F, Falahati S, Koorapaty H, Kang DH, Karaki R, Falconetti L, Larsson D (2016) Licensed-assisted access LTE: coexistence with IEEE 802.11 and the evolution toward 5G. IEEE Commun Mag 54(6):50–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), 3GPP TS 36.211 3GPP TSG RAN Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical Channels and Modulation, version 13.1.0, Release 13, March 2016

  14. 14.

    3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), 3GPP TS 36.213 3GPP TSG RAN Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical layer procedures, version 13.1.1, Release 13, March 2016

  15. 15.

    Qualcomm Inc., 3GPP TSG-RAN WG1 #72 R1-130598, Agenda item: 7.3.7, Channel models for D2D deployments, St. Julian’s, Malta, 2013

  16. 16.

    Qiu X, Chawla K (1999) On the performance of adaptive modulation in cellular systems. IEEE Trans Commun 47(6):884–895

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Le Boudec J-Y (2008) Rate adaptation, congestion control, and fairness: a Tutorial. Tech. Report, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland

  18. 18.

    Song G, Li Y (2005) Cross-layer optimization for OFDM wireless networks-Part I: theoretical framework. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 4(2):614–624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Yaacoub E, Dawy Z (2012) Resource Allocation in Uplink OFDMA Wireless Systems: Optimal Solutions and Practical Implementations. Wiley/IEEE Press, NY. ISBN:978-1-1180-7450-3

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the Editor and the Reviewers for their feedback and comments, which helped in increasing the clarity and quality of this paper.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elias Yaacoub.

Additional information

Part of this work was published in [1].

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yaacoub, E. Femtocells in centralized systems: green operation and radio resource management techniques. Ann. Telecommun. 72, 679–691 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12243-017-0565-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Femtocell
  • Energy efficiency
  • Resource allocation
  • Interference mitigation
  • LTE