On energy efficiency in underwater wireless sensor networks with cooperative routing


In this paper, we exploit cooperative communication for designing an energy-efficient routing algorithm in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Each network node is equipped with a single omnidirectional antenna and multiple node coordinates while taking advantage of spatial diversity. This research work is limited in scope to amplify-and-forward (AF) scheme at the relay node and fixed ratio combining (FRC) strategy at the receiver node. Cooperative diversity at the physical layer and multi-hop routing at the network layer enable us to formulate minimum energy routing as a joint optimization of the transmission power at physical layer and link selection at the network layer. Simulations results show that our proposed cooperative energy-efficient routing for UWSN (Co-EEUWSN) performs better than the selected non-cooperative routing protocols (depth-based routing (DBR) and energy-efficient DBR (EEDBR)) and cooperative DBR (Co-DBR) in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy efficiency.

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The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this research through Research Group Project (RG no. 1435-051).

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Correspondence to Nadeem Javaid.

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Ahmad, A., Ahmed, S., Imran, M. et al. On energy efficiency in underwater wireless sensor networks with cooperative routing. Ann. Telecommun. 72, 173–188 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12243-017-0560-0

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  • Cooperative communication
  • Relay sensor node
  • Routing protocol
  • Multi-hop
  • Single-hop
  • Diversity
  • Energy consumption
  • Packet delivery ratio