Annals of Telecommunications

, Volume 72, Issue 3–4, pp 173–188 | Cite as

On energy efficiency in underwater wireless sensor networks with cooperative routing

  • Ashfaq Ahmad
  • Sheeraz Ahmed
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Masoom Alam
  • Iftikhar Azim Niaz
  • Nadeem JavaidEmail author


In this paper, we exploit cooperative communication for designing an energy-efficient routing algorithm in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Each network node is equipped with a single omnidirectional antenna and multiple node coordinates while taking advantage of spatial diversity. This research work is limited in scope to amplify-and-forward (AF) scheme at the relay node and fixed ratio combining (FRC) strategy at the receiver node. Cooperative diversity at the physical layer and multi-hop routing at the network layer enable us to formulate minimum energy routing as a joint optimization of the transmission power at physical layer and link selection at the network layer. Simulations results show that our proposed cooperative energy-efficient routing for UWSN (Co-EEUWSN) performs better than the selected non-cooperative routing protocols (depth-based routing (DBR) and energy-efficient DBR (EEDBR)) and cooperative DBR (Co-DBR) in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy efficiency.


Cooperative communication Relay sensor node Routing protocol Multi-hop Single-hop Diversity Energy consumption Packet delivery ratio 



The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this research through Research Group Project (RG no. 1435-051).


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Copyright information

© Institut Mines-Télécom and Springer-Verlag France 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.COMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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