Connectivity evaluation and error performance of millimeter-wave wireless backhaul networks


The general trend in the backhaul link technology arena is the increasing use of high-speed microwave solutions. The ever-rising demand for high capacities at low cost has recently enhanced the interest in wireless backhaul networks. Evaluating the connectivity of the wireless multi-hop backhaul networks is a significant task. Taking into account the high frequency of operation, a novel analytical and engineering propagation model is presented for the calculation of connectivity. Furthermore, the minimum required node density in order to keep the network connected is also calculated. The sensitivity of network connectivity on frequency operation, transmission power, and climatic conditions is also investigated. Finally, the error performance of the backhaul network links is finally presented, and some very useful conclusions are drawn.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Ericsson (2008) High-speed technologies for mobile backhaul. White paper.

  2. 2.

    Ericsson AB (2008) Mobile broadband backhaul: addressing the challenge. Ericsson review no. 3

  3. 3.

    Little S (2009) Is microwave backhaul up to 4 G task? IEEE Microw Mag 10:67–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Lockie D, Peck D (2009) High-data-rate millimeter-wave radios. IEEE Microw Mag 10:75–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    ITU-R (2007) Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial broadband radio access systems operating in a frequency range from 3 to 60 GHz. ITU-R Recommendation P.1410-4, Geneva

  6. 6.

    FCC (2005) Allocations and service rules for 71–76 GHz, 81–86 GHz and 92–95 GHz bands.

  7. 7.

    Davis CC, Smolyaninov II, Milner SD (2003) Flexible optical wireless links and networks. IEEE Commun Mag 41:51–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Arnon S (2003) Optimization of urban optical wireless communication systems. IEEE Trans Wireless Comm 2:626–629

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Crane RK (1996) Electromagnetic wave propagation through rain. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Fong B, Hong GY, Fong ACM (2002) A modulation scheme for broadband wireless access in high capacity networks. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 48(3):457–462

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Fong B, Rapajic PB, Hong GY, Fong ACM (2003) Forward error correction with Reed–Solomon codes for wearable computers. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 49(4):917–921

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Drougas AE, Panagopoulos AD, Cottis PG (2007) Data transmission over rain-faded broadband fixed wireless access channels. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 53(3):871–876

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Panagopoulos AD, Kanellopoulos JD (2003) Statistics of differential rain attenuation on converging terrestrial propagation paths. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 51(9):2514–2517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Panagopoulos AD, Kanellopoulos JD (2003) Differential rain attenuation statistics on two converging point-to-point terrestrial links located in a tropical climatic region. Annals on Telecommunications 58(3–4):673–667

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Cheffena M, Braten L, Ekman T (2009) On the space–time variations of rain attenuation. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 57(6):1771–1782

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Erdos P, Renyi A (1960) On the evolution of random graphs. Publ Math Inst Hungar Acad Sci 5:17–61

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bollobas B (1998) Modern graph theory. Springer, Heidelberg

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Panagopoulos AD, Arapoglou PD, Kanellopoulos J, Cottis P (2005) Long-term rain attenuation probability and site diversity gain prediction formulas. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 53(7):2307–2313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    ITU-R (2007) Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modeling. ITU-R Recommendation P. 837-5, Geneva

  20. 20.

    ITU-R (2005) Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods. ITU-R Recommendation P. 838-3, Geneva

  21. 21.

    Bettstetter C, Hartmann C (2005) Connectivity of wireless multihop networks in a shadow fading environment. Wirel Netw 11:571–579

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Abramovitz M, Stegun I (1965) Handbook of mathematical functions. Dover, New York

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Miorandi D et al (2008) The impact of channel randomness on coverage and connectivity of Ad Hoc and sensor networks. IEEE Trans On Wir Commun 7(3):1062–1072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Goldsmith A (2005) Wireless communications. Stanford University, Stanford

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Georgios T. Pitsiladis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pitsiladis, G.T., Panagopoulos, A.D. & Constantinou, P. Connectivity evaluation and error performance of millimeter-wave wireless backhaul networks. Ann. Telecommun. 65, 795–802 (2010).

Download citation


  • Wireless backhaul networks
  • Isolation probability
  • Minimum node density
  • Error performance