Energy Consumption Analysis of Different Bev Powertrain Topologies by Design Optimization
- 60 Downloads
Flexible layout of electric motors in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has enabled different powertrain topologies to be used. However, these different powertrain topologies also affect the overall efficiency of energy conversion from the electrochemical form stored in the battery to the mechanical form on the driving wheels for vehicle propulsion. In this study, a methodology combining an energy-based BEV simulation model with the genetic algorithm optimization approach is applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of three different BEV powertrain topologies. The analysis is carried out assuming two different urban driving conditions, as exemplified by the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and the Japanese JC08 drive cycle. Each of the three BEV powertrain topologies is then optimized – in terms of its electric motor size and, where applicable, gear reduction ratio – for minimum energy consumption. The results show that among the three powertrain topologies, the wheel-hub drive without gear reducers consumes the least energy. The energy consumption of BEVs under the more aggressive JC08 drive cycle is consistently 8 % above that under NEDC for all three powertrain topologies considered.
Key wordsBattery electric vehicles Energy consumption Optimal design Powertrain topology Drive cycle analysis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anair, D. and Mahmassani, A. (2012). State of Charge: Electric Vehicles’ Global Warming Emissions and Fuel- Cost Savings across the United States. Union of Concerned Scientists.Google Scholar
- Barreras, F., Maza, M., Lozano, A., Báscones, S., Roda, V., Barranco, J. E., Cerqueira, M. and Vergés, A. (2012). Design and development of a multipurpose utility awd electric vehicle with a hybrid powertrain based on pem fuel cells and batteries. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 20, 15367–15379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IEA (2012). Policy Pathways: Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles–A Policy Package. International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- IEA (2013). Global EV Outlook. International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- Laine, L. and Fredriksson, J. (2007). Coordination of vehicle motion and energy management control systems for wheel motor driven vehicles. Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symp., Istanbul, Turkey, 773–780.Google Scholar
- Li, X., Chen, Y. and Wang, J. (2012). In-wheel motor electric ground vehicle energy management strategy for maximizing the travel distance. Proc. IEEE American Control Conf. (ACC), Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 4993–4998.Google Scholar
- Wang, B., Li, M., Xu, M. and Zhou, J. (2013). Simulationbased energy flow study of purely electric-drive vehicles. Proc. FISITA World Automotive Cong., Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 191, 615–630.Google Scholar
- Zaccardi, J.-M. and Le Berr, F. (2013). Analysis and choice of representative drive cycles for light duty vehicles–Case study for electric vehicles. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 227, 4, 605–616.Google Scholar