Transient Dynamic Characteristics of a Non-Pneumatic Mechanical Elastic Wheel Rolling Over a Ditch

  • You-Qun Zhao
  • Yao-Ji Deng
  • Fen Lin
  • Ming-Min Zhu
  • Zhen Xiao


The transient dynamic characteristic of a tire, which has a significant effect on vehicle handling stability and ride comfort, is difficult to study in detail because of its highly non-linear behavior. In this study, the transient dynamic characteristics of a non-pneumatic wheel, called the mechanical elastic wheel (MEW), which was rolling over a ditch were investigated by the explicit dynamic finite element (FE) method. A three-dimensional FE model of MEW considering geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity and large contact deformation between the wheel and the road, was established. For the validation of the accuracy and reliability of the FE model of MEW, the simulation and the experimental results of the radial stiffness and footprint of MEW were compared and analyzed. A dynamic simulation of the validated FE model of MEW rolling over a ditch was conducted using the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The equivalent stress and the contact stress generated during the process of the rolling MEW impacting the ditch were studied in detail. The effect of the rolling speed on the transient dynamic characteristics was also analyzed based on the simulation results. The simulation results could provide guidance for the optimization of the MEW structure and vehicle dynamics.

Key words

Non-pneumatic wheel Mechanical elastic wheel Transient dynamic characteristic Explicit finite element analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alkan, V., Karamihas, S. M. and Anlas, G. (2011). Finite element modeling of static tire enveloping characteristics. Int. J. Automotive Technology 12, 4, 529–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkan, V. and Anlas, S. M. K. G. (2009). Experimental analysis of tyre-enveloping characteristics at low speed. Vehicle System Dynamics: Int. J. Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility 47, 5, 575–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bras, B. and Cobert, A. (2011). Life-cycle environmental impact of Michelin Tweel® tire for passenger vehicles. SAE Int. J. Passenger Cars-Mechanical Systems 4, 1, 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Besselink, I. J. M., Pacejka, H. B., Schmeitz, A. J. C. and Jansen, S. T. H. (2012). The MF-Swift tyre model: Extending the magic formula with rigid ring dynamics and an enveloping model. Review of Automotive Engineering, 26, 245–252.Google Scholar
  5. Bridgestone, C. (2013). Non-pneumatic Tire. JPN: JP2013/177140.Google Scholar
  6. Cho, J. R., Kim, K. W., Jeon, D. H. and Yoo, W. S. (2005). Transient dynamic response analysis of 3-D patterned tire rolling over cleat. European J. Mechanics -A/Solids 24, 3, 519–531.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Du, X. B., Zhao Y. Q., Lin, F., Fu, H. X. and Wang, Q. (2017). Numerical and experimental investigation on the camber performance of a non-pneumatic mechanical elastic wheel. J. Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences & Engineering, 1–13.Google Scholar
  8. Guo, K. H. and Liu, Q. (1998). A model of tire enveloping properties and its application on modelling of automobile vibration systems. SAE Paper No. 980253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gipser, M. (2007). FTire–The tire simulation model for all applications related to vehicle dynamics. Vehicle System Dynamics: Int. J. Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility 45, Supplement 1, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ju, J., Ananthasayanam, B., Summers, J. D. and Joseph, P. (2010). Design of cellular shear bands of a non-pneumatic tire-investigation of contact pressure. Hundred Schools in Arts 3, 1, 598–606.Google Scholar
  11. Ju, J., Kim, D. M. and Kim, K. (2012). Flexible cellular solid spokes of a non-pneumatic tire. Composite Structures 94, 8, 2285–2295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kilner, J. R. (2012). Pneumatic tire model for aircraft simulation. J. Aircraft 19, 10, 851–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kang, N. (2009). Prediction of tire natural frequency with consideration of the enveloping property. Int. J. Automotive Technology 10, 1, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li, B., Zhao, Y. Q. and Zang, L. G. (2014). Closed-form solution of curved beam model of elastic mechanical wheel. J. Vibroengineering 16, 8, 3951–3962.Google Scholar
  15. Manager, K. M. C. (1979). Analytical tire models for dynamic vehicle simulation. Vehicle System Dynamics: Int. J. Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility 8, 1, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maalej, A. Y., Guenther, D. A. and Ellis, J. R. (1989). Experimental development of tyre force and moment models. Int. J. Vehicle Design 10, 1, 34–51.Google Scholar
  17. Ma, J., Summers, J. D. and Joseph, P. F. (2010). Simulation studies on the influence of obstacle on rolling lunar wheel. Proc. ASME Int. Conf. Advanced Vehicle and Tire Technologies, 89–100.Google Scholar
  18. Ma, J., Summers, J. D. and Joseph, P. (2011). Dynamic impact simulation of interaction between non-pneumatic tire and sand with obstacle. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mousseau, C. W. (1994). An analytical and experimental study of a tire rolling over a stepped obstacle at low velocity. Tire Science and Technology 22, 3, 162–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Namjoo, M. and Golbakhshi, H. (2015). An efficient design tool based on FEM for evaluating effects of components properties and operating conditions on interaction of tire with rigid road. J. Central South University 22, 1, 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rhyne, T. B. and Cron, S. M. (2006). Development of a non-pneumatic wheel. Tire Science and Technology 34, 3, 150–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rao, K. V. N. and Kumar, R. K. (2007). Simulation of tire dynamic behavior using various finite element techniques. Int. J. Computational Methods in Engineering Science & Mechanics 8, 5, 363–372.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. Taghavifar, H., Motlagh, A. M., Mardani, A., Hassanpour, A., Hosseinloo, A. H. and Wei, C. (2016). The induced shock and impact force as affected by the obstacle geometric factors during tire-obstacle collision dynamics. Measurement, 84, 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang, Q., Zhao, Y. Q., Du, X. B., Zhu, M. M. and Fu, H. X. (2016a). Equivalent stiffness and dynamic response of new mechanical elastic wheel. J. Vibroengineering 18, 1, 431–445.Google Scholar
  25. Wang, Q., Zhao, Y. Q., Lin, F., Fu, H. X. and Du, X. B. (2016b). Research on vibration characteristics and its key influencing factors of new mechanical elastic wheel. J. Vibroengineering 18, 8, 5337–5352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wei, C. and Olatunbosun, O. A. (2014). Transient dynamic behaviour of finite element tire traversing obstacles with different heights. J. Terramechanics, 56, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wei, C. F. and Olatunbosun, O. A. (2016). The effects of tyre material and structure properties on relaxation length using finite element method. Materials & Design, 102, 14–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wei, Y. T., Nasdala, L. and Rothert, H. (2009). Analysis of forced transient response for rotating tires using REF models. J. Sound & Vibration 320, 1, 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhao, Y. Q., Zang, L. G., Chen, Y. Q., Li, B. and Wang, J. (2015). Non-pneumatic mechanical elastic wheel natural dynamic characteristics and influencing factors. J. Central South University 22, 5, 1707–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zuo, S. G., Ni, T. X., Wu, X. D., Wu, K. and Yang, X. W. (2014). Prediction procedure for wear distribution of transient rolling tire. Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 3, 505–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • You-Qun Zhao
    • 1
  • Yao-Ji Deng
    • 1
  • Fen Lin
    • 1
  • Ming-Min Zhu
    • 1
  • Zhen Xiao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Energy and Power EngineeringNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations