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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Grey-Fuzzy Taguchi approach for multi-objective optimization of performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder crdi engine coupled with EGR

This article was retracted on 07 June 2022

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The present study attempts to address the challenges of the multiobjective optimization problem of the BSFC-NOx-PM trade-off paradox of an existing diesel engine by harnessing the synergetic benefit of PM and BSFC reduction through CRDI operation and simultaneous NOx reduction by EGR application. Load, FIP and EGR were chosen as the input parameters while NOx, PM and BSFC were the response variables. In order to reduce the experimental effort, the Taguchi L16 orthogonal array technique was employed to obtain the corresponding values of the response variables. The grey relational analysis coupled with fuzzy logic has been employed as the optimization routine. The optimal combination of the input parameters corresponding to the calibrated values of the response variables were obtained by employing the Grey-Fuzzy Grade and S-N ratio strategy as a performance index. The computed optimal combination so obtained were further validated through actual experimentation. EGR was found to be the most influencing factor in the present optimization endeavour. The study also established that the Grey-Fuzzy-Taguchi method was not only comparable but superior to the Grey-Taguchi method usually employed for such optimization studies.

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baseline diesel operation


brake power


brake specific fuel consumption


before top dead centre


brake thermal efficiency

CO2 :



compression ignition


common rail diesel injection


exhaust gas recirculation


fuel injection pressure


grey fuzzy grade


grey relational grade

IC Engine:

internal combustion engine


oxides of nitrogen


particulate matter


parts per million

ṁa EGR :

mass flow rate of air with EGR

ṁa w/oEGR :

mass flow rate of air without EGR


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Correspondence to S. Roy.

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This article has been retracted. Please see the retraction notice for more detail:–022–0103–1

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Roy, S., Das, A.K. & Banerjee, R. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Grey-Fuzzy Taguchi approach for multi-objective optimization of performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder crdi engine coupled with EGR. Int.J Automot. Technol. 17, 1–12 (2016).

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Key Words

  • CRDI
  • EGR
  • Grey relational analysis
  • Fuzzy decision making logic
  • Taguchi method