A smart charge scheduling model is presented for potential (1) vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled battery electric vehicle (BEV) owners who are willing to participate in the grid ancillary services, and (2) grid operators. Unlike most V2G implementations, which are considered from the perspective of power grid systems, this model includes a communication network architecture for connecting system components that supports both BEV owners and grid operators to efficiently monitor and manage the charging and ancillary service activities. This model maximizes the net profit to each BEV participant while simultaneously satisfying energy demands for his/her trips. The performance of BEVs using the scheduling model is validated by estimating optimal annual financial benefits under different scenarios. An analysis of popular BEV models revealed that one of the existing BEVs considered in the study can generate an annual regulation profit of $454, $394 and $318 when the average daily driving distance is 20 miles, 40 miles and 60 miles, respectively. All popular BEV models can completely compensate the energy cost and generate a positive net profit, through the application of the scheduling model presented in this paper, with an annual driving distance of approximately 15,000 miles. Simulation analysis indicated that the extra load distribution from the optimized BEV charging operations were well balanced compared to the unmanaged BEV operations.
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Li, Z., Chowdhury, M., Bhavsar, P. et al. Optimizing the performance of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled battery electric vehicles through a smart charge scheduling model. Int.J Automot. Technol. 16, 827–837 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-015-0085-3