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Detection and isolation of faults in the exhaust path of turbocharged automotive engines

Abstract

Detection and isolation of faults in the exhaust gas path of a turbocharged spark ignition (SI) engine is an essential part of the engine control unit (ECU) strategies to minimize exhaust emission and ensure safe operation of a turbocharger. This paper proposes a novel model-based strategy to detect and isolate an exhaust manifold leakage and a stuckclosed wastegate fault. The strategy is based on a globally optimal parameter estimation algorithm which detects a virtual hole area in the exhaust manifold. The estimation algorithm requires observation of the exhaust manifold’s input and output flows. The input flow is estimated by a nonlinear Luenberger observer which is analytically shown to be robust to the faults in the exhaust manifold. The output flow of the exhaust manifold is estimated by a sliding mode observer. The designed fault detection and isolation (FDI) strategy is tested with the experimental data collected from a 1.7-liter turbocharged SI engine. The validation results show that the FDI strategy can successfully detect a leakage fault caused by a 5 mm hole in the exhaust manifold, and can identify the wastegate stuck-closed fault.

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Abbreviations

A:

area (m2)

C:

damping coefficient (kg/s)

Cd :

discharge coefficient (-)

Cp :

specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/kg.K)

d:

diameter (m)

F:

force (N)

K:

spring stiffness (N/m)

m:

mass (kg)

\(\dot m\) :

mass flow (kg/s)

P:

pressure (kPa)

Pr:

pressure ratio (-)

R:

specific gas constant (kJ/kg.K)

t:

time (sec)

T:

temperature (K)

U:

speed (m/s)

V:

volume (m3)

X:

displacement (m)

η:

efficiency (%)

θ:

angle (rad)

γ:

ratio of specific heats (-)

ρ:

density (kg/m3)

ω:

rotational speed (rad/s)

a:

air

amb:

ambient

b:

boost

c:

compensated

cap:

wastegate capsule

corr:

corrected

ds:

downstream

em:

exhaust manifold

eff:

effective

eng:

engine

f:

fuel

h:

hole

im:

intake manifold

in:

input

inj:

injected

k:

kinetic

out:

output

p:

pressure

ref:

reference

sp:

spring

t:

turbine

th:

throttle

us:

upstream

vol:

volumetric

WG:

wastegate

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Correspondence to A. Alasty.

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Salehi, R., Alasty, A., Shahbakhti, M. et al. Detection and isolation of faults in the exhaust path of turbocharged automotive engines. Int.J Automot. Technol. 16, 127–138 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-015-0014-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-015-0014-5

Key Words

  • SI engine
  • FDI
  • Turbocharger
  • Leakage
  • Wastegate
  • Sliding mode observer