Abel, D.C., R.F. Young, J.A. Garwood, M.J. Travaline, and B.K. Yednock. 2007. Survey of the shark fauna in two South Carolina estuaries and the impact of salinity structure. American Fisheries Society Symposium 50: 109–124.
Adams, D.H., and R. Paperno. 2007. Preliminary assessment of a nearshore nursery ground for the scalloped hammerhead off the Atlantic coast of Florida. American Fisheries Society Symposium 50: 165–174.
Ajemian, M.J., and S.P. Powers. 2016. Seasonality and ontogenetic habitat partitioning of cownose rays in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estuaries and Coasts 39 (4): 1234–1248.
Anderson, M.J. 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26: 32–46.
Anderson, M.J. 2006. Distance-based tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersions. Biometrics 62 (1): 245–253.
Barile, P.J. 2018. Widespread sewage pollution of the Indian River Lagoon system, Florida (USA) resolved by spatial analyses of macroalgal biogeochemistry. Marine Pollution Bulletin 128: 557–574.
Beck, M., K. Heck, K. Able, D. Childers, and D. Eggleston. 2001. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. BioScience 51 (8): 633–641.
Bernal, D., J. Carlson, K. Goldman, and C. Lowe. 2012. Energetics, metabolism and endothermy in sharks and rays. In Biology of sharks and their relatives, ed. J.C. Carrier, J.A. Musick, and M.R. Heithaus, 2nd ed., 211–237. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Bethea, D.M., J.A. Buckel, and J.K. Carlson. 2004. Foraging ecology of the early life stages of four sympatric shark species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 268: 245–264.
Bethea, D.M., M.J. Ajemian, J.K. Carlson, E.R. Hoffmayer, J.L. Imhoff, R.D. Grubbs, et al. 2014. Distribution and community structure of coastal sharks in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98 (5): 1233–1254.
Blaber, S.J.M., and T.G. Blaber. 1980. Factors affecting the distribution of juvenile estuarine and inshore fish. Journal of Fish Biology 17 (2): 143–162.
Castro, J.I. 1993a. The shark nursery of Bulls Bay, South Carolina, with a review of the shark nurseries of the southeastern coast of the United States. Environmental Biology of Fishes 38 (1–3): 37–48.
Castro, J.I. 1993b. The biology of the finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon. Environmental Biology of Fishes 36 (3): 219–232.
Castro, J.I. 1996. Biology of the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, off the southeastern United States. Bulletin of Marine Science 59 (3): 508–522.
Clarke, K.R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18 (1): 117–143.
Clarke, K.R., and R.N. Gorley. 2015. PRIMER v7: User manual/tutorial. Plymouth: PRIMER-E Ltd..
Collins, A.B., M.R. Heupel, and P.J. Motta. 2007. Residence and movement patterns of cownose rays Rhinoptera bonasus within a south-west Florida estuary. Journal of Fish Biology 71 (4): 1159–1178.
Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. Sharks of the world: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date—Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Fisheries Synopsis 125(4). Rome, Italy.
Curtis, T.H., D.H. Adams, and G.H. Burgess. 2011. Seasonal distribution and habitat associations of bull sharks in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: A 30-year synthesis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140 (5): 1213–1226.
Curtis, T.H., D.C. Parkyn, and G.H. Burgess. 2013. Use of human-altered habitats by bull sharks in a Florida nursery area. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 5 (1): 28–38.
DeAngelis, B.M., C.T. McCandless, N.E. Kohler, C.W. Recksiek, and G.B. Skomal. 2008. First characterization of shark nursery habitat in the United States Virgin Islands: Evidence of habitat partitioning by two shark species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 358: 257–271.
Dodrill, J.W. 1977. A hook and line survey of sharks found within five hundred meters of shore along Melbourne Beach, Brevard County, Florida. Master’s thesis. Melbourne, Florida: Florida Institute of Technology.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2018. Local estuary programs. EPA, Washington D.C. Available: https://www.epa.gov/nep/local-estuary-programs. (July 2018).
Evermann, B.W., and B.A. Bean. 1898. Indian River and its fishes. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries Report of the Commissioner 22: 227–248.
Froeschke, J., G.W. Stunz, and M.L. Wildhabe. 2010. Environmental influences on the occurrence of coastal sharks in estuarine waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series 407: 279–292.
Gilliam, D., and K.M. Sullivan. 1993. Diet and feeding habits of the southern stingray Dasyatis americana in the Central Bahamas. Bulletin of Marine Science 52 (3): 1007–1013.
Gilmore, R.G.J. 1977. Fishes of the Indian River lagoon and adjacent waters, Florida. Bulletin of Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 22 (3): 101–148.
Grubbs, R.D., and J.A. Musick. 2007. Spatial delineation of summer nursery areas for juvenile sandbar sharks in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. American Fisheries Society Symposium 50: 63–86.
Håkanson, L. 2006. The relationship between salinity, suspended particulate matter and water clarity in aquatic systems. Ecological Research 21 (1): 75–90.
Hanisak, M.D., and K.S. Davis. 2018. Interannual variability in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, measured by a network of environmental sensors. In Proceedings of SPIE 10631, Ocean Sensing and Monitoring X 10631A. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Heithaus, M.R., B.K. Delius, A.J. Wirsing, and M.M. Dunphy-Daly. 2009. Physical factors influencing the distribution of a top predator in a subtropical oligotrophic estuary. Limnology and Oceanography 54 (2): 472–482.
Heupel, M.R., and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2008. Movement and distribution of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a variable estuarine environment. Aquatic Biology 1 (3): 277–289.
Heupel, M.R., and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2011. Estuarine nursery areas provide a low-mortality environment for young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 433: 237–244.
Heupel, M.R., C.A. Simpfendorfer, A.B. Collins, and J.P. Tyminski. 2006. Residency and movement patterns of bonnethead sharks, Sphyrna tiburo, in a large Florida estuary. Environmental Biology of Fishes 76 (1): 47–67.
Heupel, M.R., J.K. Carlson, and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2007. Shark nursery areas: Concepts, definition, characterization and assumptions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 337: 287–297.
Heupel, M.R., S. Kanno, A.P.B. Martins, and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2018. Advances in understanding the roles and benefits of nursery areas for elasmobranch populations. Marine and Freshwater Research.
Hopkins, T.E., and J.J.J. Cech. 2003. The influence of environmental variables on the distribution and abundance of three elasmobranchs in Tomales Bay, California. Environmental Biology of Fishes 66 (3): 279–291.
Kennish, M.J. 2002. Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries. Environmental Conservation 29 (1): 78–107.
Knip, D.M., M.R. Heupel, and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2010. Sharks in nearshore environments: Models, importance, and consequences. Marine Ecology Progress Series 402: 1–11.
Kohler, N.E., and P.A. Turner. 2019. Distributions and movements of Atlantic shark species: a 52-year retrospective atlas of mark and recapture data. Marine Fisheries Review 81 (2): 1–94.
Kupschus, S., and D. Tremain. 2001. Associations between fish assemblages and environmental factors in nearshore habitats of a subtropical estuary. Journal of Fish Biology 58 (5): 1383–1403.
Matich, P., R.J. Nowicki, J. Davis, J.A. Mohan, J.D. Plumlee, B.A. Strickland, et al. 2020. Does proximity to freshwater refuge affect the size structure of an estuarine predator (Carcharhinus leucas) in the North-Western Gulf of Mexico? Marine and Freshwater: Research.
McCallister, M., R. Ford, and J. Gelsleichter. 2013. Abundance and distribution of sharks in Northeast Florida waters and identification of potential nursery habitat. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 5 (1): 200–210.
Natanson, L.J., D.H. Adams, M.V. Winton, and J.R. Maurer. 2014. Age and growth of the bull shark in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143 (3): 732–743.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1996. Magnuson-Stevens fishery conservation and management act, as amended through Oct. 11, 1996. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA tech memo NMFS-F/SPO-23. Seattle, Washington.
NMFS. 1997. COASTSPAN survey: Shark nursery survey manual. Narragansett: NMFS.
NMFS. 2009. Final amendment 1 to the 2006 consolidated Atlantic highly migratory species. Fishery management plan, Essential Fish Habitat. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, Silver Spring, MD.
NMFS. 2017. Amendment 10 to the 2006 consolidated Atlantic highly migratory species fishery management plan to update essential fish habitat delineations and life history descriptions for Atlantic highly migratory species. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, Silver Spring, MD.
NMFS. 2020. 2019 stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for Atlantic highly migratory species. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, Atlantic highly migratory species management division, Silver Spring, MD. Silver Spring, MD.
Norton, S.L., T.R. Wiley, J.K. Carlson, A.L. Frick, G.R. Poulakis, and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2012. Designating critical habitat for juvenile endangered smalltooth sawfish in the United States. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 4 (1): 473–480.
Parsons, G.R., and E.R. Hoffmayer. 2005. Seasonal changes in the distribution and relative abundance of the Atlantic Sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae in the north Central Gulf of Mexico. Copeia 2005 (4): 914–920.
Phlips, E.J., S. Badylak, M. Christman, J. Wolny, J. Brame, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, M. Lasi, J. Lockwood, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, A. Staples, and K. Steidinger. 2011. Scales of temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of harmful algae species in the Indian River lagoon, Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 10 (3): 277–290.
Plumlee, J.D., K.M. Dance, P. Matich, J.A. Mohan, T.M. Richards, T.C. TinHan, M.R. Fisher, and R.J.D. Wells. 2018. Community structure of elasmobranchs in estuaries along the Northwest Gulf of Mexico. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 204: 103–113.
Ramsden, S., C.F. Cotton, and M.C. Curran. 2017. Using acoustic telemetry to assess patterns in the seasonal residency of the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina. Environmental Biology of Fishes 100 (2): 89–98.
Roskar, G., M.P. McCallister, and M.J. Ajemian. 2020. Performance of two survey gears targeting elasmobranchs in a shallow, subtropical estuary. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 12 (1): 50–63.
Schaefer, A.M., M.D. Hanisak, M. McFarland, and J.M. Sullivan. 2019. Integrated observing systems: An approach to studying harmful algal blooms in South Florida. Journal of Operational Oceanography 8778: S187–S198.
Schwartz, F.J., and M.D. Dahlberg. 1978. Biology and ecology of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina (Pisces: Dasyatidae) in North Carolina and Georgia. Northeast Gulf Science 2 (1): 1–23.
Sigua, G.C., and W.A. Tweedale. 2003. Watershed scale assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in the Indian River lagoon basin, Florida. Journal of Environmental Management 67 (4): 363–372.
Sigua, G.C., J.S. Steward, and W.A. Tweedale. 2000. Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988-1994). Environmental Management 25 (2): 199–209.
Sime, P. 2005. St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon conceptual ecological model. The Society of Wetland Scientists 25 (4): 10.
Simpfendorfer, C.A., G.G. Freitas, T.R. Wiley, and M.R. Heupel. 2005. Distribution and habitat partitioning of immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in a southwest Florida estuary. Estuaries 28 (1): 78–85.
Snelson, F.F.J., and S.E. Williams. 1981. Notes on the occurrence, distribution, and biology of elasmobranch fishes in the Indian River Lagoon system, Florida. Estuaries 4 (2): 110–120.
Snelson, F.F.J., T.J. Mulligan, and S.E. Williams. 1984. Food habits, occurrence, and population structure of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in Florida coastal lagoons. Bulletin of Marine Science 34 (1): 71–80.
Snelson, F.F.J., S.E. Williams-Hooper, and T.H. Schmid. 1988. Reproduction and ecology of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, in Florida coastal lagoons. Copeia 1988 (3): 729–739.
Snelson, F.F.J., S.E. Williams-Hooper, and T.H. Schmid. 1989. Biology of the bluntnose stingray, Dasyatis sayi, in Florida coastal lagoons. Bulletin of Marine Science 45 (1): 15–25.
Springer, S. 1960. Natural history of the sandbar shark, Eulamia milberti. Fishery Bulletin 61: 1–38.
Stockley, N., J. M. Sullivan, M. D. Hanisak, and M. N. McFarland. 2018. Using observation networks to examine the impact of Lake Okeechobee discharges on the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida. In Proc. SPIE 10631, Ocean Sensing and Monitoring X, 1063109. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Tremain, D.M., and D.H. Adams. 1995. Seasonal variation in species diversity, abundance and composition of fish communities in the northern Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 57 (1): 171–192.
Ulrich, G.F., C.M. Jones, W.B. Driggers, J.M. Drymon, D. Oakley, and C. Riley. 2007. Habitat utilization, relative abundance, and seasonality of sharks in the estuarine and nearshore waters of South Carolina. American Fisheries Society Symposium 50: 125–139.
Ward-Paige, C.A., G.L. Britten, D.M. Bethea, and J.K. Carlson. 2015. Characterizing and predicting essential habitat features for juvenile coastal sharks. Marine Ecology 36 (3): 419–431.
Whaley, S.D., J.J. Burd, and B.A. Robertson. 2007. Using estuarine landscape structure to model distribution patterns in nekton communities and in juveniles of fishery species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330: 83–99.
Yates, P.M., M.R. Heupel, A.J. Tobin, and C.A. Simpfendorfer. 2012. Diversity in young shark habitats provides the potential for portfolio effects. Marine Ecology Progress Series 458: 269–281.