How Well Do Restored Intertidal Oyster Reefs Support Key Biogeochemical Properties in a Coastal Lagoon?
- 349 Downloads
The restoration of dead/degraded oyster reefs is increasingly pursued worldwide to reestablish harvestable populations or renew ecosystem services. Evidence suggests that oysters can improve water quality, but less is known about the role of associated benthic sediments in promoting biogeochemical processes, such as nutrient cycling and burial. There is also limited understanding of if, or how long postrestoration, a site functions like a natural reef. This study investigated key biogeochemical properties (e.g., physiochemical properties, nutrient pools, microbial community size and activity) in the sediments of dead reefs; 1-, 4-, and 7-year-old restored reefs; and natural reference reefs of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Mosquito Lagoon (FL, USA). Results indicated that most of the measured biogeochemical properties (dissolved organic carbon (C), NH4 +, total C, total nitrogen (N), and the activity of major extracellular enzymes involved in C, N, and phosphorus (P) cycling) increased significantly by 1-year postrestoration, relative to dead reefs, and then remained fairly constant as the reefs continued to age. Few differences were observed in biogeochemical properties between restored reefs of any age (1 to 7 years) and natural reference reefs. Variability among reefs of the same treatment category was often correlated with differences in the number of live oysters, reef thickness, and/or the availability of C and N in the sediments. Overall, this study demonstrates the role of live intertidal oyster reefs as biogeochemical hot spots for nutrient cycling and burial and the rapidity (within 1 year) with which biogeochemical properties can be reestablished following successful restoration.
KeywordsCrassostrea virginica Shellfish Restoration Biogeochemistry Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus
The authors would like to thank Lacie Anderson, Phyllis Klarmann, Meagan Mindalie, Jaice Metherall, John Heiland, and Janet Ho for assistance with field sampling, as well as the cooperation of Canaveral National Seashore and the St. Johns Water Management District in the completion of this study. This work was supported by the Indian River Lagoon National Estuarine Program and the National Science Foundation, under the Coupled Natural-Human Systems program, award #1617374.
- Beck, Michael W., Robert D. Brumbaugh, Laura Airoldi, Alvar Carranza, Loren D. Coen, Christine Crawford, Omar Defeo, et al. 2011. Oyster reefs at risk and recommendations for conservation, restoration, and management. Bioscience 61: 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.2.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bell, Colin W., Barbara E. Fricks, Jennifer D. Rocca, Jessica M. Steinweg, Shawna K. McMahon, and Matthew D. Wallenstein. 2013. High-throughput fluorometric measurement of potential soil extracellular enzyme activities. Journal of Visualized Experiments. https://doi.org/10.3791/50961.
- Birch, A., and L. Walters. 2012. Restoring intertidal oyster reefs in Mosquito Lagoon: the evolution of a successful model. TNC/NOAA Community-Based Restoration Partnership Program. 70 pp.Google Scholar
- Campbell, D. 2015. Quantifying the effects of boat wakes on intertidal oyster reefs in a shallow estuary. Orlando: University of Central Florida.Google Scholar
- Chrost, R.J., and H.J. Krambeck. 1986. Fluorescence correction for measurements of enzyme-activity in natural-waters using methylumbelliferyl substrates. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 106: 79–90.Google Scholar
- Cressman, K.A., M.H. Posey, M.A. Mallin, L.A. Leonard, and T.D. Alphin. 2003. Effects of oyster reefs on water quality in a tidal creek estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 22: 753–762.Google Scholar
- Dame, Richard F. 1999. Oyster reefs as components of estuarine nutrient cycling: inceidental or controlling? In Oyster reef habitat restoration: a synopsis and synthesis of approaches, ed. Mark W. Luckenbach, Roger Mann, and James A. Wesson, 267–280. Williamsburg: W&M Publish. https://doi.org/10.21220/V5NK51.
- DeBusk, W.F., and K.R. Reddy. 1998. Turnover of detrital organic carbon in a nutrient-impacted Everglades marsh. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62: 1460–1468. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200050045x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Frankignoulle, M, M. Pichon, and J-P. Gattuso. 1995. Aquatic calcification as a source of carbon dioxide. In Carbon sequestration in the biosphere, ed. Max A. Beran, 265–271. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- German, Donovan P., Michael N. Weintraub, A. Stuart Grandy, Christian L. Lauber, Zachary L. Rinkes, and Steven D. Allison. 2011. Optimization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme methods for ecosystem studies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1387–1397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.03.017.
- Grabowski, Jonathan H., Robert D. Brumbaugh, Robert F. Conrad, Andrew G. Keeler, J. Opaluch, Charles H. Peterson, Michael F. Piehler, Sean P. Powers, and Ashley R. Smyth. 2012. Economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by oyster reefs. Bioscience 62: 900–909. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.10.10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grizzle, R.E., J.R. Adams, and L.J. Walters. 2002. Historical changes in intertidal oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reefs in a Florida lagoon potentially related to boating activities. Journal of Shellfish Research 21: 749–756.Google Scholar
- Higgins, Colleen B., Craig Tobias, Michael F. Piehler, Ashley R. Smyth, Richard F. Dame, Kurt Stephenson, and Bonnie L. Brown. 2013. Effect of aquacultured oyster biodeposition on sediment N2 production in Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 473: 7–27. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoellein, Timothy J., Chester B. Zarnoch, and Raymond E. Grizzle. 2015. Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) filtration, biodeposition, and sediment nitrogen cycling at two oyster reefs with contrasting water quality in Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, USA). Biogeochemistry 122: 113–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-014-0034-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoppe, Hans-Georg. 1993. Use of fluorogenic model substrates for extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) measurement of bacteria. In Handbook of methods in aquatic microbial ecology, eds. Paul F. Kemp, Barry F. Sherr, Evelyn B. Sherr, and Jonathan J. Cole, 423–431. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.Google Scholar
- Huang, Qinghui, Zijian Wang, Chunxia Wang, Shengrui Wang, and Xiangcan Jin. 2005. Phosphorus release in response to pH variation in the lake sediments with different ratios of iron-bound P to calcium-bound P. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability 17: 55–61. https://doi.org/10.3184/095422905782774937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kellogg, M. Lisa, Ashley R. Smyth, Mark W. Luckenbach, Ruth H. Carmichael, Bonnie L. Brown, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, Michael F. Piehler, Michael S. Owens, D. Joseph Dalrymple, and Colleen B. Higgins. 2014. Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 151: 156–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.09.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leffler, Merrill and Pauli Hayes. 2004. Oyster research and restoration in U.S. coastal waters: research priorities and strategies. www.mdsg.umd.edu/sites/default/files/files/store/oysterrestoration_summary.pdf. Accessed 23 Aug 2017.
- Lenihan, Hunter S. 1999. Physical-biological coupling on oyster reefs: How habitat structure influences individual performance. Ecological Monographs 69: 251–275.Google Scholar
- Lindemann, Samantha, Chester B. Zarnoch, Domenic Castignetti, and Timothy J. Hoellein. 2016. Effect of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and seasonality on nitrite reductase gene abundance (nirS, nirK, nrfA) in an urban estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 39: 218–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-015-9989-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Makoi, Jhjr, and P.A. Ndakidemi. 2008. Selected soil enzymes: Examples of their potential roles in the ecosystem. African Journal of Biotechnology 7: 181–191.Google Scholar
- McClain, Michael E., Elizabeth W. Boyer, C. Lisa Dent, Sarah E. Gergel, Nancy B. Grimm, Peter M. Groffman, Stephen C. Hart, et al. 2003. Biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems 6: 301–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-003-0161-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mortazavi, Behzad, Alice C. Ortmann, Lei Wang, Rebecca J. Bernard, Christina L. Staudhammer, J. Donald Dalrymple, Ruth H. Carmichael, and Alice A. Kleinhuizen. 2015. Evaluating the impact of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) gardening on sediment nitrogen cycling in a subtropical estuary. Bulletin of Marine Science 91: 323–341. https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2014.1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Newell, R.I.E, T.R. Fisher, R.R. Holyoke, and J.C. Cornwell. 2005. Influence of eastern oysters on nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration in Chesapeake Bay, USA. In The comparative roles of suspension feeders in ecosystems, ed. R. Dame and S. Olenin, 93–120. Dordrecht: Springer pp. 93–120.Google Scholar
- Nizzoli, Daniele, David T. Welsh, Marco Bartoli, and Pierluigi Viaroli. 2005. Impacts of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) farming on oxygen consumption and nutrient recycling in a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Hydrobiologia 550: 183–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-4378-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Piehler, M.F., and A.R. Smyth. 2011. Habitat-specific distinctions in estuarine denitrification affect both ecosystem function and services. Ecosphere. https://doi.org/10.1890/ES10-00082.1.
- Plutchak, Rochelle, Kelly Major, Cebrian Just, C. Drew Foster, Mary Elizabeth C. Miller, Andrea Anton, Kate L. Sheehan, Kenneth L. Heck, and Sean P. Powers. 2010. Impacts of oyster reef restoration on primary productivity and nutrient dynamics in tidal creeks of the north Central Gulf of Mexico. Estuaries and Coasts 33: 1355–1364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-010-9327-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- St. Johns River Water Management District. 2016. The Indian River Lagoon: An estuary of national significance. http://www.sjrwmd.com/indianriverlagoon/. Accessed 26 Oct 2016.
- Tiedje, J.M. 1982. Denitrification. In Methods of soil analysis. Part 2, ed. A.L. Page, 1011–1026. Madison: ASA-SSSA.Google Scholar
- USEPA. 1993. Methods for the determination of inorganic substances in environmental samples, EPA/600/R-93/100. Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Wall, L.M., Linda J. Walters, R.E. Grizzle, and P.E. Sacks. 2005. Recreational boating activity and its impact on the recruitment and survival of the oyster Crassostrea virginica on intertidal reefs in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 24: 965–973. https://doi.org/10.2983/0730-8000(2005)24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walters, Linda J. 2016. Oyster reef deployment and monitoring: Final technical report. Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program, 25 pp.Google Scholar
- Wilberg, Michael J., Maude E. Livings, Jennifer S. Barkman, Brian T. Morris, and Jason M. Robinson. 2011. Overfishing, disease, habitat loss, and potential extirpation of oysters in upper Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 436: 131–144. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar