A Modeling Study of the Impacts of Mississippi River Diversion and Sea-Level Rise on Water Quality of a Deltaic Estuary

Abstract

Freshwater and sediment management in estuaries affects water quality, particularly in deltaic estuaries. Furthermore, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence also affect estuarine water quality by changing salinity, circulation, stratification, sedimentation, erosion, residence time, and other physical and ecological processes. However, little is known about how the magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns in estuarine water quality variables will change in response to freshwater and sediment management in the context of future SLR. In this study, we applied the Delft3D model that couples hydrodynamics and water quality processes to examine the spatial and temporal variations of salinity, total suspended solids, and chlorophyll-α concentration in response to small (142 m3 s−1) and large (7080 m3 s−1) Mississippi River (MR) diversions under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative SLR (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) scenarios in the Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana, USA. The hydrodynamics and water quality model were calibrated and validated via field observations at multiple stations across the estuary. Model results indicate that the large MR diversion would significantly affect the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of the studied water quality variables across the entire estuary, whereas the small diversion tends to influence water quality only in small areas near the diversion. RSLR would also play a significant role on the spatial heterogeneity in estuary water quality by acting as an opposite force to river diversions; however, RSLR plays a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of the water quality parameters in this deltaic estuary.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. Ali, A., C.J. Lemckert, H. Zhang, and R.J.K. Dunn. 2013. Sediment dynamics of a very shallow subtropical estuarine lake. Journal of Coastal Research 30: 351–361.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Allison, M.A., and E.A. Meselhe. 2010. The use of large water and sediment diversions in the lower Mississippi River (Louisiana) for coastal restoration. Journal of Hydrology 387: 346–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bhuiyan, M.J.A.N., and D. Dutta. 2012. Assessing impacts of sea level rise on river salinity in Gorai river network, Bangladesh. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 96: 219–227.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Blauw, A.N., H.F.J. Los, M. Bokhorst, and P.L.A. Erftemeijer. 2009. GEM: a generic ecological model for estuaries and coastal waters. Hydrobiologia 618: 175–198.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bonamano, S., A. Madonia, C. Borsellino, C. Stefani, G. Caruso, F. De Pasquale, V. Piermattei, G. Zappala, and M. Marcelli. 2015. Modeling the dispersion of variable and total Escherichia coli cells in the artificial semi-enclosed bathing areas of Santa Marinella (Latium, Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin 95: 141–154.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cable, J.E., Swenson, E.M., Snedden, G.A., and Swarzenski, C.. 2007. Surface Water Hydrology in Upper Breton Sound Basin, Louisiana: Effects of the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion. Final report. Coastal Restoration Division. Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 149 pp.

  7. Chen, Q., L. Wang, and R. Tawes. 2008. Hydrodynamic response of northeastern Gulf of Mexico to hurricanes. Estuaries and Coasts 31(6): 1098–1116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cloern, J.E., C. Grenz, and L. Vidergar-Lucas. 1995. An empirical model of the phytoplankton chlorophyll: carbon ration—the conversion factor between productivity and growth rate. Limnology and Oceanography 40: 1313–1321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). 2012. Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. State of Louisiana. http://coastal.la.gov/a-common-vision/2012-coastal-master-plan/.

  10. Couvillion, B.R., G.D. Steyer, H. Wang, H.J. Beck, and J. Rbczyk. 2013. Forecasting the effects of coastal projection and restoration projects on wetland morphology in coastal Louisiana under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios. Journal of Coastal Research SI (67): 29–50. doi:10.2112/SI_67_3.

  11. Cui, B., Q. Yang, Z. Yang, and K. Zhang. 2009a. Evaluating the ecological performance of wetland restoration in the Yellow River Delta, China. Ecological Engineering 35: 1090–1103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cui, B., N. Tang, X. Zhao, and J. Bai. 2009b. A management-oriented valuation method to determine ecological water requirement for wetlands in the Yellow River Delta of China. Journal for Nature Conservation 17: 129–141.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Darby, F.A., and R. E. Turner. 2008. Below- and aboveground biomass of spartina alterniflora: response to nutrient addition in a Louisiana salt marsh. Estuaries and Coasts 31(2): 326–334.

  14. Das A. 2010. Modeling the impacts of pulsed riverine inflows on hydrodynamics and water quality in the Barataria Bay estuary. Ph.D Dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

  15. Das, A., D. Justic, M. Inoue, A. Hoda, H. Huang, and D. Park. 2012. Impacts of Mississippi River diversions on salinity gradients in a deltaic Louisiana estuary: Ecological and management implications. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 111: 17–26.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Day, J.W., J.E. Cable, J.H. Cowan, R. Delaune, K.D. Mutsert, B. Fry, H. Mashriqui, and D. Justic. 2009. The Impacts of Pulsed Reintroduction of River Water on a Mississippi Delta Coastal Basin. Journal of Coastal Research 54: 225–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Delaune, R.D., A. Jugsujinda, J.L. West, C.B. Johnson, and M. Kongchum. 2005. A screening of the capacity of Louisiana freshwater wetlands to process nitrate in diverted Mississippi River water. Ecological Engineering 25: 315–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. DeLaune, R.D., M. Kongchum, J.R. White, and A. Jugsujinda. 2013. Freshwater diversions as an ecosystem management tool for maintain soil organic matter accretion in coastal marshes. Catena 107: 139–144.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Deltares. 2013. D-Water Quality User Manual. Version: 4.99.31050, November 22, 2013. Delft, the Netherlands, 414 pp.

  20. DeMarco, K., J. Mouton, and J.W. Pahl. 2012. Recommendations for anticipating sea-level rise impacts on Louisiana coastal resources during project planning and design: Summary of the technical report for coastal managers. Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana, January 24: 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Dekshenieks, M.M., E.E. Hofmann, J.M. Klinck, and E.N. Powell. 2000. Quantifying the effects of environmental change on an oyster population: a modeling study. Estuaries 23: 593–610.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Dodds, W.K. 2006. Nutrients and the “dead zone”: the link between nutrient ratios and dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 4: 211–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Dortch, M.S., M. Zakikhani, M.R. Noel, and S.C. Kim. 2007. Application of a Water Quality Model to Mississippi Sound to Evaluate Impacts of Freshwater Diversion. ERDC/EL TR07-20. Vicksburg, Mississippi: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Dortch, Q., M.L. Parson, N.N. Rabalais, and R.E. Turner. 1999. What is the threat of harmful algal blooms in Louisiana coastal waters? In Recent research in coastal Louisiana, ed. L.P. Rozas, J.A. Nyman, C.E. Proffitt, N.N. Rabalais, D.J. Reed, and R.E. Turner, 134–144. Lafayette: Louisiana Sea Grant.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Driessen, T.L.A., and M.V. Ledden. 2013. The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans. Drinking Water Engineering and Science 6: 81–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Findlay, S.E.G., D.L. Strayer, S.D. Smith, and N. Curri. 2014. Magnitude and patterns of change in submerged aquatic vegetation of the tidal freshwater Hudson River. Estuaries and Coasts. doi:10.1007/ s12237-013-9758-1.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Fuentes, M.S. 2008. Ecological factors affecting cyanobacteria in coastal Louisiana. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana.

  28. Grangere, K., A. Menesguen, S. Lefebvre, C. Bacher, and S. Pouvreau. 2009. Modeling the influence of environmental factors on the physiological status of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in an estuarine embayment: The Baie des Veys (France). Journal of Sea Research 62(2–3): 147–158.

  29. Glysson, G.D., Gray, J.R., Conge, L.M.. 2000. Adjustment of total suspended solids data for use in sediment studies: Proceedings, ASCE’s 2000 Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water-Resources Planning and Management, July 31–August 2, 2000, Minneapolis, Minn., 10 p. http://water.usgs.gov/osw/pubs/ASCEGlysson.pdf

  30. Haidvogel, D.B., H. Arango, W.P. Budgell, B.D. Cornuelle, E. Curchitser, E. Di Lorenzo, K. Fennel, W.R. Geyer, A.J. Hermann, L. Lanerolle, J. Levin, J.C. McWilliams, A.J. Miller, A.M. Moore, T.M. Powell, A.F. Shchepetkin, C.R. Sherwood, R.P. Signell, J.C. Warner, and J. Wilkin. 2008. Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Journal of Computational Physics 227: 3595–3624.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Hansen, V.D., and J.A. Nestlerode. 2013. Carbon sequestration in wetland soils of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. Wetlands Ecology and Management 22: 289–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Hilton, T.W., R.G. Najjar, L. Zhong, and M. Li. 2008. Is there a signal of sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay salinity? Journal of Geophysical Research 113: 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hitchcock, J.N., and S.M. Mitrovic. 2015. Highs and lows: the effect of differently sized freshwater inflows on estuarine carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, bacteria and chlorophyll α dynamics. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science 156: 71–82.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Hong, B., and J. Shen. 2012. Responses of estuarine salinity and transport processes to potential future sea-level rise in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 104-105: 33–45.

  35. Hu, K., P. Ding, Z. Wang, and S. Yang. 2009. A 2D/3D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for the Yangtze Estuary, China. Journal of Marine Systems 77: 114–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Hu, K., Q. Chen, and H. Wang. 2015. A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary. Coastal Engineering 95: 66–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Huang, H., D. Justic, R. Lane, J. Day, and J. Cable. 2011. Hydrodynamic response of the Breton Sound estuary to pulsed Mississippi River inputs. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science 95: 216–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Huang, W., S.C. Hagen, P. Bacopoulos, and F. Teng. 2014. Sea-level rise effects on hurricane-induced salinity transport in Apalachicola Bay. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 68: 49–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Huang, W., S. Hagen, P. Bacopoulos, and D. Wang. 2015. Hydrodynamic modeling and analysis of sea-level rise impacts on salinity for oyster growth in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 156: 7–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Hyfield, E.C.G., J.W. Day, J.E. Cable, and D. Justic. 2008. The impacts of re-introducing Mississippi River water on the hydrologic budget and nutrient inputs of a deltaic estuary. Ecological Engineering 32: 347–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Irby, I.D., M.A.M. Friedrichs, C.T. Friedrichs, A.J. Bever, R.R. Hood, L.W.J. Lanerolle, M. Li, L. Linker, L.M.E. Scully, K. Sellner, J. Shen, J. Testa, H. Wang, P. Wang, and M. Xia. 2016. Challenges associated with modeling low-oxygen waters in Chesapeake Bay: a multiple model comparison. Bigeosciences 13: 2011–2028.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Jolliff, J.K., J.C. Kindle, I. Shulman, B. Penta, M.A.M. Friedrichs, R. Helber, and R.A. Arnone. 2009. Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment. Journal of Marine Systems 76: 64–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Justic, D., and L. Wang. 2014. Assessing temporal and spatial variability of hypoxia over the inner Louisiana-upper Texas shelf: application of an unstructured-grid three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-water quality model. Continental Shelf Research 72: 163–179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kacikoc, M., and M. Beyhan. 2014. Hydrodynamic and water quality modeling of Lake Egirdir. Clean-Soil, Air, Water 42: 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Lane, R.R., J.W. Day, and J.N. Day. 2006. Wetland Surface Elevation, Vertical Accretion, and Subsidence At Three Louisiana Estuaries Receiving Diverted Mississippi River Water. Wetlands 26: 1130–1142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Lane, R., J.W. Day, B. Marx, E. Reyes, E. Hyfield, and J.N. Day. 2007. The effect of riverine discharge on temperature, salinity, suspended sediment, and chlorophyll a, in a Mississippi delta estuary measured using a flow-through system. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 74: 145–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Lane, R.R., J.W. Day, and B. Thibodeaux. 1999. Water quality analysis of a freshwater diversion at Caernarvon, Louisiana. Estuaries 22(2): 327.

  48. La Peyre, M.K., B. Gossman, and J.F. La Peyre. 2009. Defining Optimal Freshwater Flow for Oyster Production: Effects of Freshet Rate and Magnitude of Change and Duration on Eastern Oysters and Perkinsus marinus Infection. Estuaries and Coasts 32: 522–534.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. La Peyre, M.K., B.S. Eberline, T.M. Soniat, and J.F. La Peyre. 2013. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) aixe class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 135: 146–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. La Peyre, M.K., J. Geaghan, G. Decossas, and J.F. La Peyre. 2016. Analysis of environmental factors influencing salinity patterns, oyster growth and mortality in lower Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana using 20 years of data. Journal of Coastal Research 32: 519–530.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Lesser, G.R., J.A. Roelvink, J.A.T.M. van Kester, and G.S. Stelling. 2004. Development and validation of a three-dimensional morphological model. Coastal Engineering 51: 883–915.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Liu, W.C., and H.M. Liu. 2014. Assessing the impacts of sea level rise on salinity intrusion and transport time scales in a tidal estuary, Taiwan. Water 6: 324–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Lundberg, C.J., R.R. Lane, and J.W. Day Jr. 2014. Spatial and temporal variations in nutrients and water quality parameters in the Mississippi River-influenced Breton Sound estuary. Journal of Coastal Research 30: 328–336.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Martyr, R.C., J.C. Dietrich, J.J. Westerink, P.C. Kerr, C. Dawson, J.M. Smith, H. Pourtaheri, N. Powell, M. Van Ledden, S. Tanaka, H.J. Roverts, H.J. Westerink, and L.G. Westerink. 2013. Simulating hurricane storm surge in the lower Mississippi River under varying flow conditions. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 139: 492–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Meselhe, E.A., I. Georgiou, M.A. Allison, and J.A. McCorquodale. 2012. Numerical modeling of hydrodynamics and sediment transport in lower Mississippi at a proposed delta building diversion. Journal of Hydrology 472-473: 340–354.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Moffatt, and Nichol. 2010. Review and analysis of Pontchartrain Estuary water quality as impacted by opening of the Bonnet Carre Spillway. New Orleans, Louisiana: U.S. Army Engineer District.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Mortazavi, B., R.L. Iverson, W.M. Landing, F.G. Lewis, and W. Huang. 2000. Control of phytoplankton production and biomass in a river-dominated estuary: Apalachicola Bay, Florida, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198: 19–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Peyronnin, N.S., M. Green, C.P. Richards, A. Owens, D. Reed, D. Groves, J. Chamberlain, K. Rhinehart, and K. Belhadjali. 2013. Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal Master Plan: Overview of a science-based and publicly-informed decision making process. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 67: 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Ren, L., N.N. Rabalais, R.E. Turner, W. Morrison, and W. Mendelhall. 2009. Nutrient limitation on phytoplankton growth in the upper Barataria Basin, Louisiana: Microcosm bioassays. Estuaries and Coasts 32: 958–974.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Riekenberg, J., S. Bargu, and R. Twilley. 2015. Phytoplankton community shifts and harmful algae presence in a diversion influenced estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 38: 2213–2226.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Roberts, H.H., R.D. DeLaune, J.R. White, C. Li, C.E. Sasser, D. Braud, E. Weeks, and S. Khalil. 2015. Floods and cold front passages: impacts on coastal marshes in a river diversion setting (Wax Lake Delta area, Louisiana). Journal of Coastal Research 31(5): 1057–1068.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Rosen, T., and Y.J. Xu. 2014. A hydrograph-based sediment availability assessment: implications for Mississippi River sediment diversion. Water 6: 564–583.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Sasser, C.E., Visser, J. M., Mouton, E., Linscombe, J.. 2008. Vegetation Types in Coastal Louisiana in 2007. USGS Open-File Report 2008–1224. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1224/.

  64. Schroeder, W.W., S.P. Dinnel, and W.J. Wiseman Jr. 1990. Salinity stratification in a river-dominated estuary. Estuaries 13(2): 145–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Shumway, S.E. 1996. Natural environmental factors. In The Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica, ed. V.S. Kennedy, R.I.E. Newell, and A.F. Eble, 467–513. College Park: A Maryland Sea Grant Book.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Snedden, G.A., J.E. Cable, C. Swarzenski, and E. Swenson. 2007a. Sediment discharge into a subsiding Louisiana deltaic estuary through a Mississippi River diversion. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71: 181–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Snedden, G.A., J.E. Cable, and W.J. Wiseman Jr. 2007b. Subtidal sea level variability in a shallow Mississippi River Deltaic estuary, Louisiana. Estuaries and Coasts 30: 802–812.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Soniat, T.M., C.P. Cozelmann, J.D. Byrd, D.P. Roszell, J.L. Bridevaux, K.J. Suir, and S.B. Colley. 2013. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality: Application of an oyster habitat suitability index model. Journal of Shellfish Research 32(3): 629–638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Swarzenski, C.M., T.W. Doyle, B. Fry, and T.G. Hargis. 2008. Biogeochemical response of organic-rich freshwater marshes in the Louisiana delta plain to chronic river water influx. Biogeochemistry 90(1): 49–63.

  70. Thessen, A.E., Q. Dortch, M.L. Parsons, and W. Morrison. 2005. Effect of salinity on Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) growth and distribution. Journal of Phycology 41: 21–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Turner, R.E., N.N. Rabalais, and D. Justic. 2008. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: alternate states and a legacy. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 2323–2327.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Turner, R.E., B.L. Howes, J.M. Teal, C.S. Milan, E.M. Swenson, and D.D. Goehringer-Tonerb. 2009. Salt marshes and eutrophication: An unsustainable outcome. Limnology and Oceanography 54(5): 1634–1642.

  73. US Army Corps of Engineers. 1984. Louisiana coastal area, Louisiana freshwater diversion to Barataria and Breton Sound Basins. New Orleans District, Louisiana: Feasibility Study and EIS.

    Google Scholar 

  74. VanZomeren, C.M., J.R. White, and R.D. DeLaune. 2013. Ammonification and denitrification rates in coastal Louisiana bayou sediment and marsh soil: implications for Mississippi river diversion management. Ecological Engineering 54: 77–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Vermeer M.S., S. Rahmstorf. 2009. Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 21527–21532.

  76. Visser, J.M., Reed, D., Steyer, G.D., Callaway, J., Swenson, E.M., Suir, G.M., Suhayda, J.. 2003. Wetland Nourishment Module. In Twilley RR, ed. Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1–8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

  77. Visser, J.M., S.M. Duke-Sylvester, J. Carter, and W.P. Broussard III. 2013. A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 67: 51–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Wang, H., W. Huang, M.A. Harwell, L. Edmiston, E. Johnson, P. Hsieh, K. Milla, J. Christensen, J. Stewart, and X. Liu. 2008. Modeling oyster growth rate by coupling oyster population and hydrodynamic models for Apalachicola Bay, Florida, USA. Ecological Modeling 211: 77–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Wang, H., R. Wang, Y. Yu, M.J. Mitchell, and L. Zhang. 2011. Soil organic carbon of degraded wetlands treated with freshwater in the Yellow River Delta, China. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 2628–2633.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Wang, H., G.D. Steyer, B.R. Couvillion, J.M. Rybczyk, H.J. Beck, W.J. Sleavin, E.A. Meselhe, M.A. Allison, R.G. Boustany, C.J. Fischenich, and V.H. Rivera-Monroy. 2014. Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 138: 57–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Xu, K., R.C. Mickey, Q. Chen, C.K. Harris, R.D. Hetland, K. Hu, and J. Wang. 2016. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Computers & Geosciences 90: 24–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Xue, Z., J. Zambon, Z. Yao, Y. Liu, and R. He. 2015. An Integrated Ocean Circulation, Wave, Atmosphere and Marine Ecosystem Prediction System for the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Operational Oceanography 8(1): 80–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Zhang, W., J.R. White, and R.D. DeLaune. 2012. Diverted Mississippi River sediment as a potential phosphorus source affecting coastal Louisiana water quality. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 27: 575–586.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Zhao, H., Q. Chen, D.N. Walker, Q. Zheng, and L.H. MacIntyre. 2011. A study of sediment transport in a shallow estuary using MODIS imagery and particle tracking simulation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 32(21): 6653–6671.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Zheng, L., C. Chen, and F. Zhang. 2004. Development of water quality model in the Satilla River Estuary, Georgia. Ecological Modeling 178: 457–482.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) through Louisiana Sea Grant (grant R/OA-15) and by the US Geological Survey (USGS) Ecosystem Mission Program. Computational resources were provided by the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI) and Louisiana State University. We would like to thank John Day, Robert Lane, and Robert Twilley for field water quality data. The Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) and the Water Institute of the Gulf provided bathymetric data and the design of Caernarvon diversion. We would like to thank Dr. Qinghua Ye from Deltares for technical assistance using the Delft3D model. We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive reviews of an earlier draft of this report. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hongqing Wang.

Additional information

Communicated by Carl T. Friedrichs

Electronic supplementary material

Fig. S1

(DOCX 50 kb)

Fig. S2

(DOCX 163 kb)

Fig. S3

(DOCX 56 kb)

Fig. S4

(DOCX 53 kb)

Fig. S5

(DOCX 1539 kb)

Fig. S6

(DOCX 1163 kb)

Fig. S7

(DOCX 1166 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, H., Chen, Q., Hu, K. et al. A Modeling Study of the Impacts of Mississippi River Diversion and Sea-Level Rise on Water Quality of a Deltaic Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 40, 1028–1054 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-016-0197-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • River diversion
  • Sea-level rise
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Water quality
  • Deltaic estuary