Tidal salt marsh is a key defense against, yet is especially vulnerable to, the effects of accelerated sea level rise. To determine whether salt marshes in southern New England will be stable given increasing inundation over the coming decades, we examined current loss patterns, inundation-productivity feedbacks, and sustaining processes. A multi-decadal analysis of salt marsh aerial extent using historic imagery and maps revealed that salt marsh vegetation loss is both widespread and accelerating, with vegetation loss rates over the past four decades summing to 17.3 %. Landward retreat of the marsh edge, widening and headward expansion of tidal channel networks, loss of marsh islands, and the development and enlargement of interior depressions found on the marsh platform contributed to vegetation loss. Inundation due to sea level rise is strongly suggested as a primary driver: vegetation loss rates were significantly negatively correlated with marsh elevation (r 2 = 0.96; p = 0.0038), with marshes situated below mean high water (MHW) experiencing greater declines than marshes sitting well above MHW. Growth experiments with Spartina alterniflora, the Atlantic salt marsh ecosystem dominant, across a range of elevations and inundation regimes further established that greater inundation decreases belowground biomass production of S. alterniflora and, thus, negatively impacts organic matter accumulation. These results suggest that southern New England salt marshes are already experiencing deterioration and fragmentation in response to sea level rise and may not be stable as tidal flooding increases in the future.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adamowicz, S.C., and C.T. Roman. 2005. New England salt marsh pools: a quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features. Wetlands 25: 279–288.
Basso, G., K. O’Brien, M. Albino Hegeman and V. O’Neill. 2015. Status and trends of wetlands in the Long Island Sound area: 130 year assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. (36 p.)
Behrens, D.K., F.A. Bombardelli, J.L. Largier, and E. Twohy. 2009. Characterization of time and spatial scales of a migrating rivermouth. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L09402.
Berry, W.J., S.E. Reinert, M.E. Gallagher, S.M. Lussier, and E. Walsh. 2015. Population status of the seaside sparrow in Rhode Island: a 25-year assessment. Northeastern Naturalist 22: 658–71.
Bertness, M.D., C.P. Brisson, M.C. Bevil, and S.M. Crotty. 2014. Herbivory drives the spread of salt marsh die-off. PloS one 9: e92916.
Boon, J.D. 2012. Evidence of sea level acceleration at U.S. and Canadian tide stations, Atlantic Coast, North America. Journal of Coastal Research 28: 1437–1445.
Borkman, D.G., and T.J. Smayda. 1996. Long-term trends in water clarity revealed by Secchi-disk measurements in Narragansett Bay. ICES Journal of Marine Science 55: 668–679.
Bowman, W. 2015. Tidal wetlands trends and conditions assessment, Long Island. Sound update, Newsletter of the Long Island Sound Study. Winter 2014-2015:6.
Bromberg, K.D., and M.D. Bertness. 2005. Reconstructing New England salt marsh losses using historical maps. Estuaries 28: 823–832.
Browne, J.P. 2011. Impacts on Spartina alterniflora: factors affecting salt marsh edge loss. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Burton, J.G.O., and J.M. Hodgson. 1987. Lowland peats in England and Wales. Harpenden: Soil Survey of England and Wales.
Cahoon, D.R., and G.R. Guntenspergen. 2010. Climate change, sea-level rise, and coastal wetlands. National Wetlands Newsletter 32: 8–13.
Cameron Engineering and Associates. 2015. Long Island tidal wetland trends analysis. Report prepared for the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission. Available from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/5113.html
Carey, J.C., S.B. Moran, R.P. Kelly, A.S. Kolker, and R.W. Fulweiler. 2015. The declining role of organic matter in New England salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts. doi:10.1007/s12237-015-9971-1.
Civco, D.L., W.C. Kennard, and M.W. Lefor. 1986. Changes in Connecticut salt-marsh vegetation as revealed by historical aerial photographs and computer-assisted cartographics. Journal Environmental Management 10: 229–239.
Cline, J.D. 1969. Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen sulfide in natural waters. Limnology and Oceanography 14: 454–458.
Corman, S.S., C.T. Roman, J.W. King, and P.G. Appleby. 2012. Salt marsh mosquito-control ditches: sedimentation, landscape change, and restoration implications. Journal of Coastal Research 28: 874–880.
Crain, C.M., K.G. Bromberg, and M. Dionne. 2009. Tidal restrictions and mosquito ditching in New England marshes. In Human impacts on salt marshes: a global perspective, ed. B.R. Silliman, E. Grosholz, and M.D. Bertness. Berkeley: University of California Press.
D’Alpaos, A., S. Lanzoni, M. Marini, and A. Rinaldo. 2010. On the tidal prism-channel area relations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 115: F01003.
Davey, E., C. Wigand, R. Johnson, K. Sundberg, J. Morris, and C.T. Roman. 2011. Use of computed tomography imaging for quantifying coarse roots, rhizomes, peat, and particle densities in marsh soils. Ecological Applications 21: 2156–2171.
Day Jr., J.W., F. Scarton, A. Rismondo, and D. Are. 1998. Rapid deterioration of a salt marsh in Venice Lagoon, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research 14: 583–590.
Day, J.W., L.D. Britsch, S.R. Hawes, G.P. Shaffer, D.J. Reed, and D. Cahoon. 2000. Pattern and process of land loss in the Mississippi Delta: a spatial and temporal analysis of wetland habitat change. Estuaries 23: 425–438.
Deegan, L.A., D.S. Johnson, R.S. Warren, B.J. Peterson, J.W. Fleeger, S. Fagherazzi, and W.M. Wollheim. 2012. Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss. Nature 490: 388–392.
DeLaune, R.D., J.A. Nyman, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1994. Peat collapse, ponding and wetland loss in a rapidly submerging coastal marsh. Journal of Coastal Research 10: 1021–1030.
Donnelly, J.P., and M.D. Bertness. 2001. Rapid shoreward encroachment of salt marsh cordgrass in response to accelerated sea-level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98: 14218–14223.
Donnelly, J.P., P. Clearly, P. Newby, P. Newby, and R. Ettinger. 2004. Coupling instrumental and geological records of sea-level change: evidence from southern New England of an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in the late 19th century. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L05203.
Elmer, W.H. 2014. A tripartite interaction between Spartina alterniflora, Fusarium palustre, and the purple marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) contributes to sudden vegetation dieback of salt marshes in New England. Phytopathology 104: 1070–1077.
Elmer, W.H., J.A. LaMondia, and F.L. Caruso. 2012. Association between Fusarium spp. on Spartina alterniflora and dieback sites in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 436–444.
Ezer, T., and L.P. Atkinson. 2014. Accelerated flooding along the U.S. East Coast: on the impact of sea-level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream, and the North Atlantic Oscillations. Earth’s Future 2: 362–382.
Fagherazzi, S., and P.L. Wiberg. 2009. Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses in shallow intertidal basins. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 114: F03022.
Fagherazzi, S., M.L. Kirwan, S.M. Mudd, G.R. Gentenspergen, S.T. Temmerman, A. D'Alpaos, J. Koppel, J.M. Rybczyk, E. Reyes, C. Craft, and J. Clough. 2012. Numerical models of salt marsh evolution: ecological, geomorphic, and climatic factors. Reviews of Geophysics 50: RG1002.
Gedan, K.B., M.L. Kirwan, E. Wolanski, E.B. Barbier, and B.R. Silliman. 2011. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change 106: 7–29.
Gordon, T., and M. Bernd-Cohen. 1999. State coastal program effectiveness in protecting natural beaches, dunes, bluffs, and rocky shores. Coastal Management 27: 187–217.
Gosselink, J.G., and R.H. Baumann. 1980. Wetland inventories: wetland loss along the U.S. coast. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementbände 34: 173–187.
Gray, A.B., G.B. Pasternack, and E.B. Watson. 2010. Hydrogen peroxide treatment effects on the particle size distribution of alluvial and marsh sediments. The Holocene 20: 293–301.
Haines, A. 2011. Flora Novae Angliae: a manual for the identification of native and naturalized higher vascular plants of New England. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Halls, J.N., and L. Kraatz. 2006. Estimating error and uncertainty in change detection analyses of historical aerial photographs. In 7th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, ed. M. Caetano and M.H. Painho, 429–438. Lisboa: Instituto Geográfico Português.
Hapke, C.J., E.A. Himmelstoss, M. Kratzmann, J.H. List, and E.R. Thiele. 2010, National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1118, 57p.
Hartig, E.K., V. Gornitz, A.S., F. Mushacke, and D. Fallon. 2002. Anthropogenic and climate-change impacts on salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, New York City. Wetlands 22: 71-89.
Heiri, O., A.F. Lotter, and G. Lemcke. 2001. Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. Journal of Paleolimnology 25: 101–110.
Hughes, R.G., and O.A.L. Paramor. 2004. On the loss of saltmarshes in south-east England and methods for their restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 440–448.
James-Pirri, M.J., R.M. Erwin, D.J. Prosser, and J.D. Taylor. 2012. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (USA). Restoration Ecology 20: 395–404.
Kearney, M.S., R.E. Grace, and J.C. Stevenson. 1988. Marsh loss in Nanticoke Estuary, Chesapeake Bay. Geographical Review 78: 205–220.
Kearney, M.S., A.S. Rogers, J.R. Townshend, E. Rizzo, D. Stutzer, J.C. Stevenson, and K. Sundberg. 2002. Landsat imagery shows decline of coastal marshes in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. EOS 83: 173–178.
Kennish, M.J. 2001. Coastal salt marsh systems in the US: a review of anthropogenic impacts. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 731–748.
Kirwan, M.L., and G.R. Guntenspergen. 2012. Feedbacks between inundation, root production, and shoot growth in a rapidly submerging brackish marsh. Journal of Ecology 100: 764–770.
Kirwan, M.L., and A.B. Murray. 2007. A coupled geomorphic and ecological model of tidal marsh evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 6118–6122.
Kirwan, M.L., G.R. Guntenspergen, A. D’Alpaos, J.T. Morris, S.M. Mudd, and S. Temmerman. 2010. Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L23401.
Kirwan, M.L., A.B. Murray, J.P. Donnelly, and D.R. Corbett. 2011. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates. Geology 39: 507–510.
Koch, M.S., I.A. Mendelssohn, and K.L. McKee. 1990. Mechanism for the hydrogen sulfide-induced growth limitation in wetland macrophytes. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 399–408.
Leatherman, S.P., and J.R. Allen. 1985. Geomorphic analysis of South Shore of Long Island barriers. New York: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 350 pp.
Lee, V., and S. Olsen. 1985. Eutrophication and management initiatives for the control of nutrient inputs to Rhode Island coastal lagoons. Estuaries 8: 191–202.
Mariotti, G.S., S. Fagherazzi, P.L. Wiberg, K.J. McGlathery, L. Carniello, and A. Defina. 2010. Influence of storm surges and sea level on shallow tidal basin erosive processes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 115: C11012.
McLoughlin, S.M., P.L. Wiberg, I. Safak, and K.J. McGlathery. 2015. Rates and forcing of marsh edge erosion in a shallow coastal bay. Estuaries and Coasts 38: 620–638.
Möller, I., T. Spencer, J.R. French, D.J. Leggett, and M. Dixon. 1999. Wave transformation over salt marshes: a field and numerical modeling study from North Norfolk, England. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 49: 411–426.
Morris, J.T. 2007. Ecological engineering in intertidial saltmarshes. Hydrobiologia 577: 161–168.
Morris, J.T., P.V. Sundareshwar, C.T. Nietch, B. Kjerfve, and D.R. Cahoon. 2002. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level 83: 2869-2877.
Morris, J.T., K. Sundberg, and C.S. Hopkinson. 2013. Salt marsh primary production and its responses to relative sea level and nutrients in estuaries at Plum Island, Massachusetts, and North Inlet. Oceanography 26: 78–84.
Morton, R.M. 1972. Spatial and temporal distribution of suspended sediment in Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound. Geological Society of America Memoirs 133: 131–142.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]. 2003. Computational techniques for tidal datums. NOAA Special Publication NOS CO-OPS 2. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/Computational_Techniques_for_Tidal_Datums_handbook.pdf
Nestlerode, J.A., V.D. Hansen, A. Teague, and M.C. Harwell. 2014. Application of a three-tier framework to assess ecological condition of Gulf of Mexico coastal wetlands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186: 3477–3493.
New York Department of Environmental Conservation [NYDEC] 2012. Nassau and Suffolk counties: trends in wetland loss. http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/31989.html
Nicholls, R.J., P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden, and C.D. Woodroffe. 2007. Coastal systems and low lying areas. In Climate Change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, et al., 315–356. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nixon, S.W. 1982. The ecology of New England high salt marshes: a community profile. No. FWS/OBS-81/55. Washington DC: National Coastal Ecosystems Team, and Kingston, RI (USA): Washington, DC (USA); Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island.
Nixon, S.W., and C.A. Oviatt. 1973. Ecology of a New England salt marsh. Ecological Monographs 43: 463–498.
Nyman, J.A., R.D. DeLaune, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1990. Wetland soil formation in the rapidly subsiding Mississippi River deltaic plan: mineral and organic matter relationships. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 31: 57–69.
Orr, M., S. Crooks, and P.B. Williams. 2003. Will restored tidal marshes be sustainable? San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Sciences 1. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8hj3d20t
Orson, R., W. Panageotou, and S.P. Leatherman. 1985. Response of tidal salt marshes of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts to rising sea levels. Journal of Coastal Research 1: 29–37.
Pasternack, G.B., G.S. Brush, and W.B. Hilgartner. 2001. Impact of historic land-use change on sediment delivery to a Chesapeake Bay subestuarine delta. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 409–427.
Phillips, J.D. 1986. Coastal submergence and marsh fringe erosion. Journal of Coastal Research 2: 427–436.
Rahmstorf, S. 2007. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315: 368–370.
Raposa, K.B. 2009. Ecological geography of the NBNERR. In An ecological profile of the Narrangansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, K.B. Raposa and M.L. Schwartz (eds).
Robinson, C., N. Herold, and J. Carter. 2015. An object-based image analysis approach for mapping salt marsh habitats in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Presented at the Society of Wetland Scientists Annual Meeting, May 31-June 4, Providence, RI.
Roman, C.T., N. Jaworski, F.T. Short, S. Findlay, and R.S. Warren. 2000. Estuaries of the northeastern United States: habitat and land use signatures. Estuaries 23(6): 743-764.
Rozsa, R. 1995. Human impacts on tidal wetlands: history and regulations. In Tidal marshes of Long Island Sound: ecology, history, and restoration, ed. G.D. Dreyer and W.A. Niering, 42–50. New London: Connecticut College Arboretum.
Sallenger, A.H., K.S. Doran, and P.A. Howd. 2012. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Nature Climate Change 2: 884–888.
Schwimmer, R.A. 2001. Rates and processes of marsh shoreline erosion in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, USA. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 672–683.
Seiple, W., and M. Salmon. 1982. Comparative social behavior of two grapsid crabs, Sesarma reticulatum (Say), and S. cinereum (Bosc). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 62: 1–24.
Smith, S.M. 2009. Multi-decadal changes in salt marshes of Cape Cod, MA: photographic analyses of vegetation loss, species shifts, and geomorphic change. Northeastern Naturalist 16: 183–208.
Stefanon, L., L. Carniello, A. D’Alpaos, and A. Rinaldo. 2012. Signatures of sea level changes on tidal geomorphology: experiments on network incision and retreat. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L12402.
Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley. 2013. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group I Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stocker, J., and K. O’Brien, J. Barrett. 2014. Analysis of shoreline erosion in Connecticut: 100 years of erosion and accretion. University of Connecticut.
Stralberg, D., M. Brennan, J.C. Callaway, J.K. Wood, L.M. Schile, D. Jongsomjit, M. Kelly, V.T. Parker, and S. Crooks. 2011. Evaluating tidal marsh sustainability in the face of sea-level rise: a hybrid modeling approach applied in San Francisco Bay. PLoS One 6: e27388.
Strickland, J.D.H., and T.R. Parsons. 1972. A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Ottawa: Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
Swanson, R.L. 1974. Variability of tidal datums and accuracy in determining datums from short series of observations, NOAA Technical Report NOS 64. Silver Spring: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.
Swanson, R.L., and R.E. Wilson. 2008. Increased tidal ranges coinciding with Jamaica Bay development contribute to marsh flooding. Journal of Coastal Research 24: 1565–1569.
Temmerman, S., G. Govers, S. Wartel, and P. Meire. 2004. Modeling estuarine variations in tidal marsh sedimentation: response to changing sea level and suspended sediment concentrations. Marine Geology 212: 1–19.
Temmerman, S., M.B. De Vries, and T.J. Bouma. 2012. Coastal marsh die-off and attenuation of floods. Global and Planetary Change 92–93: 267–272.
Tiner, R.W., K. McGuckin, and J. Herman. 2014. Rhode Island wetlands: updated inventory, characterization, and landscape-level functional assessment. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, Hadley, MA. 63 pp.
Titus, J.G. 1988. Sea level rise and wetland loss: an overview. In Greenhouse effect, sea level rise and coastal wetlands, ed J.G. Titus, 1-35. Washington D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Turner, R.E., E.M. Swenson, and C.S. Milan. 2000. Organic and inorganic contributions to vertical accretion in salt marsh sediments. In Concepts and controversies in tidal marsh ecology, ed. M.P. Weinstein and D.A. Kreeger, 583–595. Springer: Netherlands.
Van Dyke, E., and K. Wasson. 2005. Historical ecology of a central California estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 28: 173–189.
Voss, C.M., R.R. Christian, and J.T. Morris. 2013. Marsh macrophyte responses to inundation anticipate impacts of sea-level rise and indicate ongoing drowning of North Carolina marshes. Marine Biology 160: 181–194.
Wamsley, T.V., M.A. Cialone, J.M. Smith, J.H. Atkinson, and J.D. Rosati. 2010. The potential of wetlands in reducing storm surge. Ocean Engineering 37: 59–68.
Watson, E.B., and R. Byrne. 2013. Late Holocene marsh expansion in southern San Francisco Bay, California. Estuaries and Coasts 36: 643–653.
Watson, E.B., A.J. Oczkowski, C. Wigand, A.R. Hanson, E.W. Davey, S.C. Crosby, R.L. Johnson, and H.M. Andrews. 2014. Nutrient enrichment and precipitation changes do not enhance resiliency of salt marshes to sea level rise in the Northeastern U.S. Climatic Change 125: 501–509.
Weston, N. 2014. Declining sediments and rising seas: an unfortunate convergence for tidal wetlands. Estuaries and Coasts 37: 1–23.
Wigand, C., R. Comeleo, R. McKinney, G. Thursby, M. Chintala, and M. Charpentier. 1999. Outline of a new approach to evaluate ecological integrity of salt marshes. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 5: 1541–1554.
Wigand, C., P. Brennan, M. Stolt, M. Holt, and S. Ryba. 2009. Soil respiration rates in coastal marshes subject to increasing watershed nitrogen loads in southern New England, USA. Wetlands 29: 952–963.
Wigand, C., R. McKinney, M. Chintala, S. Lussier, and J. Heltshe. 2010. Development of a reference coastal wetland set in southern New England (USA). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 161: 583–598.
Wigand, C., C.T. Roman, E. Davey, M. Stolt, R. Johnson, A. Hanson, E.B. Watson, S.B. Moran, D.R. Cahoon, J.C. Lynch, and P. Rafferty. 2014. Below the disappearing marshes of an urban estuary: historic nitrogen trends and soil structure. Ecological Applications 24: 633–649.
Wigand, C., T. Ardito, C. Chaffee, W. Ferguson, S. Paton, K. Raposa, C. Vandemoer, and E.B. Watson. 2015. A climate change adaptation strategy for management of coastal marsh systems. Estuaries and Coasts. doi:10.1007/s12237-0003-y.
Wilson, C.A., Z.J. Hughes, D.M. FitzGerald, C.S. Hopkinson, V. Valentine, and A.S. Kolker. 2014. Saltmarsh pool and tidal creek morphodynamics: dynamic equilibrium of northern latitude saltmarshes? Geomorphology 213: 99–115.
We acknowledge A. Kopacsi for construction of field mesocosms. We thank the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Barrington Land Trust, the City of Warwick, and the Nature Conservancy, among other organizations, for the access to field sites. The Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve provided access to field sites on Prudence Island, loans of field equipment and logistical, and technical support, and we recognize D. Durant and R. Weber for their contributions. Laboratory and field assistance was provided by K. Szura, C. Esch, I. Feeney, J. Bishop, S. Kelley, M. Chintala, J. Gulak, A. Hanson, R. Johnson, and A. Fischer. Access to and analyses of historic coast survey charts were provided by C. Pesch and D. McGovern. Helpful input on manuscript drafts were provided by D. Campbell, J. Kiddon, G. Cicchetti, S. Haag, and J. Carey, and graphic assistance was provided by Patricia DeCastro. This report is tracking number ORD-013026 of the US EPA’s Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division. Although the information in this document has been funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency, it does not necessarily reflect the views of the agency and no official endorsement should be inferred. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
Communicated by Nancy L. Jackson
About this article
Cite this article
Watson, E.B., Wigand, C., Davey, E.W. et al. Wetland Loss Patterns and Inundation-Productivity Relationships Prognosticate Widespread Salt Marsh Loss for Southern New England. Estuaries and Coasts 40, 662–681 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-016-0069-1
- Climate change
- Sea level rise
- Anthropogenic impacts
- Spartina alterniflora
- Elevation capital