Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 1233–1250 | Cite as

Fish Productivity and Trophic Transfer in Created and Naturally Occurring Salt Marsh Habitat

  • Robert E. VincentEmail author
  • Michele Dionne
  • David M. Burdick
  • Erik A. Hobbie


High marsh pools are natural features in New England salt marshes that provide important subtidal refuge for the dominant resident fish, Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog). F. heteroclitus is considered an important component in the trophic transfer pathway for its omnivorous diet and role as a prey species providing connectivity to adjacent near-shore and terrestrial habitats. Pool creation, such as ditch-plugging, is a common component of habitat restoration and enhancement projects throughout the region. Our study combined field experiments measuring fish growth and benthic invertebrates with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes measurements to test the hypothesis that ditch plug pools have similar trophic structure and levels of productivity as naturally occurring salt marsh pools. Marked fish placed in enclosures were measured for length and weight weekly in natural pools and pools created using ditch plugs. Benthic invertebrates were sieved and sorted from soil cores to characterize invertebrate community structure, and stable isotopes were used to posit diets and trophic pathways associated with each pool type. Growth in fish length was 27 % higher and instantaneous biomass growth 17 % higher in natural pool habitat than in ditch plug habitat. Likewise, invertebrate species richness, biomass, and caloric value were all significantly greater in natural pool habitat than in ditch plugs. Stable isotope mixing models identified distinct resource utilization and trophic structure for natural and created pools. We attribute these differences to flooding and plant loss in response to ditch-plugging, which reduces habitat quality (as measured by resource availability, community structure, and trophic transfer) for fish and invertebrates. Our study increases our understanding of the ecology of salt marsh pools, and the significant results indicate that pools created using ditch plugs do not replicate the structure and function of natural pools at Moody Marsh.


Ditch plug Food web Connectivity Stable isotope Invertebrates Pools New England 



We would like to thank Beth Lambert at the New Hampshire Coastal Program for assistance with data collection and equipment. Additional thanks go to Andy Ouimette at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) Stable Isotope Lab, Alyson Eberhardt at the UNH Jackson Estuarine Lab, and staff at the Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve. We thank Fred Short and Tom Lee of UNH, associate editor Richard MacKenzie, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments that improved this manuscript. This work was funded by the NOAA/National Estuarine Research Reserve System, Graduate Research Fellowship Program. The US Fish and Wildlife Service provided a special use permit for work at Moody Marsh. This work is dedicated to our co-author, Michele Dionne, a talented scientist, mentor, colleague, and friend who contributed greatly to estuarine research and conservation. Jackson Estuarine Laboratory Contribution #524.


  1. Aber, J.D., and J.M. Melillo. 2001. Terrestrial ecosystems. San Diego: Harcourt Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adamowicz, S.C., and C.T. Roman. 2005. New England salt marsh pools: a quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features. Wetlands 25(2): 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, E.A., P.E. Fell, M.A. Peck, J.A. Gieg, C.R. Guthke, and M.D. Newkirk. 1994. Gut contents of common mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus L., in restored and impounded marsh and in natural reference marshes. Estuaries 17(2): 462–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagatini, Y.M., E. Benedito, and J. Higuti. 2010. Effect of the environmental factors on the caloric content of benthic and phytophilous invertebrates in neotropical reservoirs in Parana’ State, Brazil. International Review of Hydrobiology 95: 246–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, A.H., and I.A. Mendelssohn. 1998. Response of two oligohaline marsh communities to lethal and nonlethal disturbance. Oecologia 116: 543–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, E. 2012. Life at extremes: environments, organisms and strategies for survival. Oxfordshire: CABI Publishers. 576 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Bromberg, K., and M.D. Bertness. 2005. Reconstructing New England salt marsh losses using historical maps. Estuaries 28: 823–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burdick, D.M., M. Dionne, R.M. Boumans, and F.T. Short. 1997. Ecological responses to tidal restorations of two northern New England salt marshes. Wetlands Ecology and Management 4(2): 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapman, D.W. 1978. Production. In Methods for assessment of fish production in freshwaters, ed. T. Begenal, 202–218. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Crain, C., and M.D. Bertness. 2006. Ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients: implications for conservation and management. BioScience 56(3): 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crustinger, G.M., M.D. Collins, J.A. Fordyce, Z. Gompert, C.C. Nice, and N.J. Sanders. 2006. Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process. Science 313: 966–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cummins, K.W. and J.C. Wuycheck. 1971. Caloric equivalents for investigations in ecological energetics. International association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology 18: 1–158.Google Scholar
  13. Cunha, I., and M. Planas. 1999. Optimal prey size for early turbot larvae (Scophthalus maximus L.) based on mouth and ingested prey size. Aquaculture 175(1-2): 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daiber, F.C. 1986. Conservation of tidal marshes. New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold Company.Google Scholar
  15. DeNiro, M.J., and S. Epstein. 1978. Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42: 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeNiro, M.J., and S. Epstein. 1981. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45: 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dibble, K.L., and L.A. Meyerson. 2012. Tidal flushing restores the physiological condition of fish residing in degraded salt marshes. PLoS ONE 7(9), e46161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dionne, M., F.T. Short, and D.M. Burdick. 1999. Fish utilization of restored, created, and reference salt-marsh habitat in the Gulf of Maine. American Fisheries Society Symposium 22: 384–404.Google Scholar
  19. Eberhardt, A.L., D.M. Burdick, and M. Dionne. 2011. Effects of road culverts on nekton in New England salt marshes: impacts for tidal restoration. Restoration Ecology 19(6): 776–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erwin, T.L. 1981. Natural History of Plummers Island, Maryland. XXVI. The Ground Beetles of a Temperate Forest Site (Coleoptera: Carabidae): An Analysis of Fauna in Relation to Size, Habitat Selection, Vagility, Seasonality, and Extinction. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 5: 105–224.Google Scholar
  21. Erwin, R.M., D.K. Dawson, D.B. Souts, L.S. McAllister, and P.H. Geissler. 1991. Open marsh water management in the mid-Atlantic region: aerial surveys of waterbird use. Wetlands 11(2): 209–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finke, D.L., and R.F. Denno. 2006. Spatial refuge from intraguild predation: implications for prey suppression and trophic cascades. Oecologia 149(2): 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fitch, R., T. Theodose, and M. Dionne. 2009. Relationships among upland development, nitrogen, and plant community composition in a Maine salt marsh. Wetlands 29(4): 1179–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fogg, J.D. 1983. Recollections of a salt marsh farmer. Historical Society of Seabrook, NH.Google Scholar
  25. Foster, W.A., J.E. Treherne, P.D. Evans, and C.N.E. Ruscoe. 1979. Short-term changes in activity rhythms in an intertidal arthropod (Acarina: Bdella interrupta Evans). Oecologia 38: 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fry, B. 2006. Stable isotope ecology. New York: Springer Science, Business Media, LLC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graham, N.L., and J.G. Stofolano. 1983. Oviposition behavior of the salt marsh greenhead, Tabanus simulans (Diptera: Tabanidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 76(4): 703–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Griffiths, D. 1977. Caloric variation in crustacean and other animals. Journal of Animal Ecology 46: 593–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haas, L.H., C.J. Freeman, J.M. Logan, L. Deegan, and E.F. Gaines. 2009. Examining mummichog growth and movement: are some individuals making intra-season migrations to optimize growth? Journal of Experimental Marine Ecology 369: 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hacker, S.D., and M.D. Bertness. 1996. Trophic consequences of a positive plant interaction. American Naturalist 148: 559–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herbst, D.B. 2001. Gradients of salinity stress, environmental stability, and water chemistry as a templet for defining habitat types and physiological strategies in inland salt waters. Hydrobiologia 466: 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodek, I., A. Honek, Helmut F. van Emden. 2012. Ecology and behavior of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). Chichester: Wiley Publishers. 500 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Hopkinson, C.S., and J.P. Schubauer. 1984. Static and dynamic aspects of nitrogen cycling in the salt marsh graminoid Spartina alterniflora. Ecology 65(3): 961–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hunter, K.L., M.G. Fox, and K.W. Able. 2009. Influence of flood frequency, temperature and population density on migration of Fundulus heteroclitus in semi-isolated marsh pond habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 391: 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Int Panis, L., B. Goddeeris, and R. Verheyen. 1996. On the relationship between vertical microdistribution and adaptations to oxygen stress in littoral Chironomidae (Diptera). Hydrobiologia 318: 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. James-Pirri, M.J., K.B. Raposa, and J.G. Catena. 2001. Diet composition of mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus, from restoring and unrestricted regions of a New England (U.S.A.) salt marsh. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53: 205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. James-Pirri, M.J., R.M. Erwin, and D.J. Prosser. 2005. US Fish and Wildlife Service (Region 5) salt marsh study year 4 report (2001 to 2004). US Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5, Newington, New Hampshire: US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Geological Survey, and University of Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  38. Kaplan, W., I. Valiela, and J.M. Teal. 1979. Denitrification in a salt marsh ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography 24(4): 726–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kirkpatrick, J., and K. Foreman. 1998. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux and mineralization in Waquoit Bay soils as measured by core incubations. Biological Bulletin 195: 240–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kneib, R.T. 1997. The role of tidal marshes in the ecology of estuarine nekton. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 35: 163–220.Google Scholar
  41. Kneib, R.T., and R.L. Wagner. 1994. Nekton use of vegetated marsh habitats at different stages of tidal inundation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 107: 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koch, F., and C.J. Gobler. 2009. The effects of tidal export from salt marsh ditches on estuarine water quality and plankton communities. Estuaries and Coasts 32: 261–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Koch, M.S., I.A. Mendelssohn, and K.L. McKee. 1990. Mechanism for the hydrogen sulfide-induced growth limitation in wetland macrophytes. Limnology and Oceanography 35(2): 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lenihan, H.S., and F. Micheli. 2001. Soft-soil communities. In Marine community ecology, ed. M.D. Bertness, S.D. Gaines, and M.E. Hay. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  45. Logan, J., H. Haas, L. Deegan, and E. Gaines. 2006. Turnover rates of nitrogen stable isotopes in the salt marsh mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, following a laboratory diet switch. Oecologia 147: 391–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Long, W.C., and R.D. Seitz. 2008. Trophic interactions under stress: hypoxia enhances foraging in an estuarine food web. Marine Ecology Progress Series 362: 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luxton, M. 1967. The ecology of saltmarsh Acarina. Journal of Animal Ecology 36(2): 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. MacKenzie, R.A. 2005. Spatial and temporal patterns in insect emergence from a southern Maine salt marsh. American Midland Naturalist 153: 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacKenzie, R.A., and M. Dionne. 2008. Habitat heterogeneity: importance of salt marsh pools and high marsh surfaces to fish production in two Gulf of Maine salt marshes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 368: 217–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McClelland, J.W., and I. Valiela. 1997. Nitrogen-stable isotope signatures in estuarine food webs: a record of increasing urbanization in coastal waters. Limnology and Oceanogr 45(5): 930–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McMahon, K.W., B.J. Johnson, and W.G. Ambrose Jr. 2005. Diet and movement of the Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in a Maine salt marsh assessed using gut contents and stable isotope analyses. Estuaries 28(6): 966–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Menge, B.A., and A.M. Olson. 1990. Role of scale and environmental factors in regulation of community structure. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5(2): 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meredith, W.H., D.E. Saveikis, and C.J. Stachecki. 1985. Guidelines for “open marsh water management” in Delaware’s salt marshes – objectives, system designs, and installation procedures. Wetlands 5: 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Merrit, R.W., and K.W. Cummins. 1996. An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America, 3rd ed. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  55. Mitsch, W.J., and J.G. Gosselink. 2000. Wetlands. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Moore, J.W., and X.S. Semmens. 2008. Incorporating uncertainty and prior information into stable isotope mixing models. Ecology Letters 11(5): 470–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morris, J.T., P.V. Sundareshwar, C.T. Nietch, B. Kjerfve, and D.R. Cahoon. 2002. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecology 83(10): 2869–2877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Munsell Color. 2000. Munsell soil color charts. New Windsor: GretagMacbeth.Google Scholar
  59. Murphy, B.R., and D.W. Willis. 1996. Fisheries techniques, 2nd ed. Bethesda: American Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  60. Newell, S.Y and D. Porter. 2000. Microbial secondary production from salt marsh-grass shoots, and its known and potential fates. In, Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology, eds. Michael P. Weinstein and Daniel A. Kreeger. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 159-184.Google Scholar
  61. Nixon, S.W., and C.A. Oviatt. 1973. Ecology of a New England salt marsh. Ecological Monographs 43(4): 463–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Palmer, A., and S. Filoso. 2009. Restoration of ecosystem services for environmental markets. Science 325: 575–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pasquaud, S., J. Lobry, and P. Elie. 2007. Facing the necessity of describing estuarine ecosystems: a review of food web ecology study techniques. Hydrobiologia 588: 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Peterson, B.J., R.W. Howarth, and R.H. Garrett. 1985. Multiple stable isotopes used to trace the flow of organic matter in estuarine food webs. Science 227(4692): 1361–1363.Google Scholar
  65. Portnoy, J.W., and A.E. Giblin. 1997. Biogeochemical effects of seawater restoration to diked salt marshes. Ecological Applications 7(3): 1054–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rader, D.N. 1984. Salt-marsh benthic invertebrates: small-scale patterns of distribution and abundance. Estuaries 7(4A): 413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rakocinski, C.F., D.M. Baltz, and J.W. Fleeger. 1992. Correspondence between environmental gradients and the community structure of marsh-edge fishes in a Louisiana estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 80: 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rätz, H.-J., and J. Lloret. 2003. Variation in fish condition between Atlantic cod (Gadus morhaua) stocks, the effect on their productivity and management implications. Fisheries Research 60: 369–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rietsma, C.S., I. Valiela, and R. Buchsbaum. 1988. Detrital chemistry, growth and food choice in the saltmarsh snail (Melampus bidentatus). Ecology 69: 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rochlin, I., M.J. James-Pirri, S.C. Adamowicz, R.J. Wolfe, P. Capotosto, M.E. Dempsey, T. Iwanejko, and D.V. Ninivaggi. 2012. Integrated Marsh Management (IMM): a new perspective on mosquito control and best management practices for salt marsh restoration. Wetlands Ecology and Management. doi: 10.1007/s11273-012-9251-9.Google Scholar
  71. SAS Institute. 2010. JMP 9 statistical software. Cary: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
  72. Seliskar, D.M., J.L. Gallagher, D.M. Burdick, and L.A. Mutz. 2002. The regulation of ecosystem functions by ecotypic variation in the dominant plant: a Spartina alterniflora salt-marsh case study. Journal of Ecology 90: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Semmens, B.X., and J.W. Moore. 2008. MixSIR: A Bayesian stable isotope mixing model, Version 1.0. Date of download September 2009.
  74. Silliman, B.R., E.D. Grosholz, and M.D. Bertness. 2009. Human impacts on salt marshes: a global perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, K.J., and K.W. Able. 1994. Salt-marsh tide pools as winter refuges for the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, in New Jersey. Estuaries 17(1B): 226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sterner, R.W., J.J. Elser, E.J. Fee, S.J. Guilford, and T.H. Chrzanowski. 1997. The light: nutrient ratio in lakes: the balance of energy and materials affects ecosystem structure and process. The American Naturalist 150(6): 663–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Strong, D.R. 1992. Are trophic cascades all wet? Differentiation and donor-control in speciose ecosystems. Ecology 73: 747–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Taylor, J. 1998. Guidance for Meeting U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resource needs when conducting coastal marsh management for mosquito control on Region 5 national wildlife refuges. Newington: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5, Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge. 20 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Thebault, E., and M. Loreau. 2003. Food-web constraints on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 100(25): 14949–14954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thompson, L.S., and S. Scheu. 1984. Comparison of diets of the tidal marsh snail, Melampus bidentatus and the amphipod. Orchestia grillus. The Nautilus 98: 44–53.Google Scholar
  81. Thompson, R.M., and C.R. Townsend. 2005. Energy availability, spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem size predict food-web structure in streams. Oikos 108: 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tobias, C.R., M. Cieri, B.J. Peterson, L.A. Deegan, J. Vallino, and J. Hughes. 2003. Processing watershed-derived nitrogen in a well-flushed New England estuary. Limnology and Oceanography 48(5): 1766–1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tyler, A.V. 1973. Caloric values of some North Atlantic invertebrates. Marine Biology 19: 258–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vandenberg, N.J. 1990. First North American records for Harmonia Quadripunctata (Pontopiddian) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidea); a lady beetle native to the Palearctic. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 92(3): 407–410.Google Scholar
  85. Vander Zaden, M.J., G. Cabana, and J.B. Rasmussen. 1997. Comparing trophic position of freshwater fish calculated using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N ) and literature dietary data. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquaculture Science 54: 1142–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vincent, R.E., D.M. Burdick, and M. Dionne. 2013. Ditching and ditch-plugging in New England salt marshes: effects on hydrology, elevation, and soil characteristics. Estuaries and Coasts 36: 610–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vincent, R.E., D.M. Burdick, and M. Dionne. 2014. Ditching and ditch-plugging in New England salt marshes: effects on vegetation and self-maintenance. Estuaries and Coasts 37(2): 354–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wacasey, J.W., and E.G. Atkinson. 1987. Energy values of marine benthic invertebrates from the Canadian Arctic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 39: 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Waggy, G.L., M.S. Peterson, and B.H. Comyns. 2007. Feeding habits and mouth morphology of young silver perch (Bairiella chrysoara) from the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Southeastern Naturalist 6(4): 743–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Weinstein, M.P., and S.Y. Litvin. 2000. The role of tidal salt marsh as an energy source for marine transient and resident finfishes: a stable isotope approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129: 797–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wetzel, R.G., and G.E. Likens. 1991. Limnological analyses, 2nd ed. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Whitcraft, C.R., and L.A. Levin. 2007. Regulation of benthic algal and animal communities by salt marsh plants: impacts of shading. Ecology 88(4): 904–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wigand, C., P. Brennan, M. Stolt, M. Holt, and S. Ryba. 2009. Soil respiration rates in coastal marshes subject to increasing watershed nitrogen loads in southern New England, USA. Wetlands 29(3): 952–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wilson, K.R., J.T. Kelley, A. Croitoru, M. Dionne, D.F. Belknap, and R. Steneck. 2009. Stratigraphic and ecophysical characterizations of salt marsh pools: dynamic landforms of the Webhannet salt marsh, Wells, ME, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 32: 855–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wolfe, R.J. 1996. Effects of open marsh water management on selected tidal marsh resources: a review. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 12: 701–712.Google Scholar
  96. Wozniak, A.S., C.T. Roman, S.C. Wainright, R.A. McKinney, and M.J. James-Pirri. 2006. Monitoring food web changes in tide-restricted salt marshes: a carbon stable isotope approach. Estuaries and Coasts 29(4): 568–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wu, Y.T., C.H. Wang, X.D. Zhang, B. Zhao, L.F. Jiang, J.K. Chen, and B. Li. 2009. Effects of saltmarsh invasion by Spartina alterniflora on arthropod community structure and diets. Biological Invasions 11: 635–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. YSI Corporation. 2006. YSI 85 Multimeeter. OH: Yellow Springs.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Vincent
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Michele Dionne
    • 2
  • David M. Burdick
    • 1
  • Erik A. Hobbie
    • 3
  1. 1.Jackson Estuarine LaboratoryUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Wells National Estuarine Research ReserveWellsUSA
  3. 3.Earth Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  4. 4.MIT Sea Grant College ProgramCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations