Variations in Concentrations and Fluxes of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the Indian Estuaries

Abstract

In order to examine the variations in concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its fluxes to the atmosphere, 25 major and medium estuaries from Indian subcontinent were sampled during wet and dry periods. River discharge brought substantial amount of nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) to the Indian estuaries; however, the concentration of phytoplankton biomass was severely limited by latter due to shallowing of photic depth. Bacillariophyceae was the dominant phytoplankton group in the Indian estuaries followed by green algae, Cyanophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Relatively higher concentrations of DMS were observed in the estuaries located along the east (3.6 ± 5.7 nM) than the west coast of India (0.8 ± 0.3 nM) during wet period whereas no significant differences were observed during dry period. The concentrations of DMS were significantly lower during wet than dry period and it was consistent with the phytoplankton biomass. The slope of the relation between DMS and phytoplankton biomass displayed a significant spatial variation due to contribution of different groups of phytoplankton in the Indian estuaries. The concentrations of DMS in the Indian estuaries were higher than other estuaries in the world except some Chinese estuaries. The annual mean flux (1.95 ± 2.5 μmol m−2 day−1) from the Indian estuaries is lower than that of other estuaries in the world, except Pearl River estuary due to inhibition of phytoplankton growth by suspended load and low flushing rates.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Acharyya T., V.V.S.S. Sarma, B. Sridevi, V. Venkataramana, M.D. Bharathi, S.A. Naidu, B.S.K. Kumar, V.R. Prasad, D. Bandyopadhyay, N.P.C. Reddy, and M.D. Kumar. 2012. Reduced river discharge intensifies phytoplankton bloom in Godavari estuary, India. Marine Chemistry 132-133: 15–22.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andreae M.O. 1986. The ocean as a source of atmospheric sulfur compounds. In The role of air–sea exchange in geochemical cycling, ed. P. Buat-Menard, 31–362. Dordrecht: Reidel.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Andreae M.O., and W.R. Barnard. 1983. Determination of trace quantities of dimethylsulfide in aqueous solutions. Analytical Chemistry 55: 608–612.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Archer S.D., C.E. Stelfox-Widdicombe, P.H. Burkill, and G. Malin. 2001. A dilution approach to quantify the production of dissolved dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethyl sulphide due to microzooplankton herbivory. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 23: 131–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bates T.S., R.J. Charlson, and R.H. Gammon. 1987. Evidence for the climatic role of marine biogenic sulphur. Nature 329: 319–321.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Belviso S., S.K. Kim, F. Rassoulzadegan, B. Krajka, B.C. Nguyen, N. Mihalopoulos, and P. Buat-Menard. 1990. Production of dimethylsulfonium propionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) by a microbial food web. Limnology Oceanography 35: 1810–1821.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Burgermeister S., R.L. Zimmermann, H.W. Georgii, H.G. Bingemer, G.O. Kirst, M. Janssen, and W. Ernst. 1990. On the biogenic origin of dimethylsulfide: relation between cholorophyll, ATP, organismic DMSP, photoplankton species, and DMS distribution in Atlantic surface water and atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 20607–20615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Caffrey J.M., J.E. Cloern, and C. Grenz. 1998. Changes in production and respiration during a spring phytoplankton bloom in San Francisco Bay, California, USA: implications for net ecosystem metabolism. Marine Ecology Progress Series 172: 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Calbet A., and M.R. Landry. 2004. Phytoplankton growth, microzooplankton grazing and carbon cycling in marine systems. Limnology Oceanography 49: 51–57.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cantin G., M. Levasseur, M. Gosselin, and S. Michaud. 1996. Role of zooplankton in the mesoscale distribution of surface dimethylsulfide concentration in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series 141: 103–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cerqueira M.A., and C.A. Pio. 1999. Production and release of dimethylsulphide from an estuary in Portugal. Atmospheric Environment 33: 3355–3366.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Charlson R.J., T.L. Anderson, and R.E. McDuff. 1992. The sulphur cycle. Butcher SS. In Global biogeochemical cycles, eds. R.J. Charlson, G.H. Orians, and G.V. Wolfe, 285–300. London: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Christaki U., S. Belviso, J.R. Dolan, and M. Corn. 1996. Assessment of the role of copepods and ciliates in the release to solution of particulate DMSP. Marine Ecology Progress Series 141: 119–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Dacey J.W.H., and S.G. Wakeham. 1986. Oceanic dimethyl sulfide: production during zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Science 233: 1314–1316.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Dacey J.W.H., F.A. Howse, A.F. Michaels, and S.G. Wakeham. 1998. Temporal variability of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Sargasso Sea. Deep Sea Research 45: 2085–2104.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Eva B., and G.S. William. 2003. Influence of CO2, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate limitation on intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in batch cultures of the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Limnology Oceanography 48(6): 2256–2265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Grashoff, K., M. Ehrhardt, and K. Kremling. 1983. (Eds.). Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie Weinheim 89–224.

  18. Hu M., L. Liu, Q. Ma, T. Zhu, X. Tian, and M. Dai. 2005. Spatial–temporal distribution of dimethyl sulfide in the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent waters. Continental Shelf Research 25: 1996–2007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hu M., X. Tang, J.L. Li, and Z.J. Yu. 1997. Dimethylsulfide in sea water in the Gulf of Jiaozhou. Acta Scientiae Circumsta 17: 110–115.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Iverson R.L., F.L. Nearhoof, and M.O. Andreae. 1989. Production of dimethylsulfonium propionate and dimethylsulphide by phytoplankton in estuarine and coastal water. Limnology Oceanography 34: 53–67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Jones G.B., M.A.J. Curran, H.B. Swan, R.M. Greene, F.B. Griffiths, and L.A. Clementson. 1998. Influence of different water masses and biological activity on dimethylsulphide and dimethylsulphoniopropionate in the subantarctic zone of the Southern Ocean during ACE 1. Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 691–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kettle A., M. Andreae, D. Amouroux, T. Andreae, T. Bates, et al. 1999. Global database of sea surface dimethylsulfide (DMS) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMS as a function of latitude, longitude, and month, global. Biogeochemical Cycles 13: 399–444.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kiene R. 1992. Dynamics of dimethyl sulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate in oceanic water samples. Marine Chemistry 37: 29–52.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kiene R.P., and L.J. Linn. 2000. The fate of dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in seawater: tracer studies using 35S-DMSP. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 64: 2797–2810.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Kiene R.P., and T.S. Bates. 1990. Biological removal of DMS from seawater. Nature 345: 702–705.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kumar R., R.D. Singh, and K.D. Sharma. 2005. Water resources of India. Current Science 89: 794–811.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Leck C., U. Larsson, L.E. Bagander, S. Johansson, and S. Hajdu. 1990. DMS in the Baltic Sea: annual variability in relation to biological activity. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 3353–3363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Leck C., and H. Rodhe. 1991. Emissions of marine biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere of Northern Europe. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 12: 63–86.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Ledyard K.M., and J.W.H. Dacey. 1996. Microbial cycling of DMSP and DMS in coastal and oligotrophic seawater. Limnology Oceanography 41: 33–40.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Liss P.S., and L. Merlivat. 1986. Air–sea exchange rates: introduction and synthesis. In The role of air-sea exchange in geochemical cycling, ed. P.B. Menard, 113–127. Berlin: D. Reidel Publishing Company.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Liss, P.S., G. Malin, and S.M. Turner. 1993. Production of DMS by marine phytoplankton In: Dimethyl sulphide: oceans, atmosphere and climate (eds.) Restelli, G., and G. Angeletti. Kluwer Academic 1–14.

  32. Moret I., A. Gambaro, R. Piazza, C. Barbante, C. Andreoli, F. Corami, and G. Scarponi. 2000. The seasonal variations of dimethyl sulphide and carbon disulphide in surface water of the Venice Lagoon. Marine Chemistry 71: 283–295.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Niki T., M. Shimizu, A. Fujishiro, and J. Kinoshita. 2007. Effects of salinity downshock on dimethylsulfide production. Journal of Oceanography 63: 873–877.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Rao G.D., and V.V.S.S. Sarma. 2013. Contribution of N2O emissions to the atmosphere from Indian monsoonal estuaries. TellusB 65. doi:10.3402/Tellusb/v65i0.19660.

  35. Rao V.D., R. Viswanadham, M.D. Bharati, V.V.S.S. Sarma, and M.D. Kumar. 2015. Impact of river discharge on distribution of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and its fluxes in the coastal Bay of Bengal. Journal of Sea Research 103: 32–41.

  36. Saltzman E.S., D.B. King, K. Holmen, and C. Leck. 2007. Experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of dimethylsulfide in water. Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 16481–16486.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Sarma V.V.S.S., S.N.M. Gupta, P.V.R. Babu, T. Acharyya, N. Harikrishnachari, K.K. Vishuvardhan, N.S. Rao, et al. 2009. Influence of river discharge on plankton metabolic rates in the tropical monsoon driven Godavari estuary, India. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 85: 515–524.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Sarma V.V.S.S., V.R. Prasad, B.S.K. Kumar, K. Rajeev, B.M.M. Devi, N.P.C. Reddy, V.V. Sarma, and M.D. Kumar. 2010. Intra-annual variability in nutrients in the Godavari estuary, India. Continental Shelf Research 30: 2005–2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Sarma V.V.S.S., N.A. Kumar, V.R. Prasad, V. Venkataramana, S.A. Naidu, et al. 2011. High CO2 emissions from the tropical Godavari estuary (India) associated with monsoon river discharges. Geophysical Research Letter 38. doi:10.1029/2011GL046928.

  40. Sarma V.V.S.S., R. Viswanadham, G.D. Rao, V.R. Prasad, B.S.K. Kumar, S.A. Naidu, et al. 2012. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries. Geophysical Research Letters 39. doi:10.1029/2011GL050709.

  41. Sarma V.V.S.S., M.S. Krishna, V.R. Prasad, B.S.K. Kumar, S.A. Naidu, G.D. Rao, R. Viswanadham, T. Sridevi, P.P. Kumar, and N.P.C. Reddy. 2014. Distribution and sources of particulate organic matter in the Indian monsoonal estuaries during monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research (Biogeosciences) 119. doi:10.1002/2014JG002721.

  42. Schafer H. et al. 2010. Microbial degradation of dimethylsulfide and related C1-sulfur compounds: organisms and pathways controlling fluxes of sulfur in the biosphere. Journal of Experimental Botany 61: 315–334.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Sciare J., N. Mihalopoulos, and B.C. Nguyen. 2002. Spetio-temporal variability of dissolved sulfur compounds in European estuaries. Biogeochemistry 59: 121–141.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Shenoy, D. M. 2002. Biogeochemical cycling of dimethyl sulfide in the northern Indian Ocean. Ph.D. thesis, Goa University 191.

  45. Shenoy D.M., S. Joseph, M.D. Kumar, and M.D. George. 2002. Control and inter-annual variability of dimethyl sulfide in Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 107(D19). doi:10.1029/2001JD000371.

  46. Shenoy D.M., and J.S. Patil. 2003. Temporal variations in dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethyl sulphide in the Zuari estuary, Goa (India). Marine Environment Research 56: 387–402.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Simo R., J.O. Grimalt, and J. Albaiges. 1997. Dissolved dimethylsulphide, dimethyl sulphonio-propionate and dimethyl sulphoxide in western Mediterranean waters. Deep Sea Research II 44: 929–950.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Simo R. 2004. From cells to globe: approaching the dynamics of DMS(P) in the ocean at multiple scales, Can. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 61: 673–684.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Soman M.K., and K.K. Kumar. 1990. Some aspects of daily rainfall distribution over India during the southwest monsoon season. International, Journal of Climatology 19: 299–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Stefels J., and W.H.M. Vanboekel. 1993. Production of DMS from dissolved DMSP in axenic cultures of the marine phytoplankton species, Phaeocystis sp. Marine Ecology Progress Series 97: 11–18.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Stefels J., M. Steinke, S. Turner, G. Malin, and S. Belviso. 2007. Environmental constraints on the production and removal of the climatically active gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) and implications for ecosystem modelling. Biogeochemistry 83: 245–275.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Suzuki R., and T. Ishimaru. 1990. An improved method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll using N,N-dimethylformamide. Journal of Oceanography 46: 190–194.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Turner S.M., G. Malin, P. Liss, D.S. Harbour, and P.M. Holligan. 1988. The seasonal variation of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate concentrations in nearshore waters. Limnology Oceanography 33: 364–375.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Turner S.M., G. Malin, L.E. Bagander, and C. Leck. 1990. Interlaboratory calibration and sample analysis of dimethyl sulphide in water. Marine Chemistry 29: 47–62.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Turner S.M., G. Malin, G.D. Nightingale, and P.S. Liss. 1996. Seasonal variation of dimethyl sulphide in the North Sea and an assessment of fluxes to the atmosphere. Marine Chemistry 54: 243–262.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Vijith V., D. Sundar, and S.R. Shetye. 2009. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 85: 601–608.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Wolfe G.V., M. Steinke, and G.O. Kirst. 1997. Grazing-activated chemical defence in a unicellular marine alga. Nature 387: 894–897.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Walker C.F., M.J. Harvey, S.J. Bury, and F.H. Chang. 2000. Biological and physical controls on dissolved dimethylsulfide over the north-eastern continental shelf of New Zealand. Journal of Sea Research 43: 253–264.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Wolfe G.V., E.B. Sherr, and B.F. Sherr. 1994. Release and consumption of DMSPp from Emiliania huxleyi during grazing by Oxyrrhis marina. Marine Ecology Progress Series 111: 111–119.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Xu J., K. Yin, L. He, X. Yuan, and A.Y.T. Ho. 2008. Harrison PJ. Phosphorus limitation in the northern South China Sea during late summer: influence of the Pearl River. Deep Sea Research 55: 1330–1342.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Yang G.P., X.D. Cong, Z.B. Zhang, and W. Zhao. 2000. Dimethylsulfide in the South China Sea. Chin. Journal of Oceanology Limnology 18: 162–168.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Zimmer-Faust R.K., M.P. de Souza, and D.C. Yoch. 1996. Bacterial chemotaxis and its potential role in marine dimethyl sulphide production and biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Limnology Oceanography 41: 1330–1334.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the director of the National Institute of Oceanography and the scientist-in-charge of the Regional Centre for their constant encouragement and support. We thank the boat personnel for their help during field trips. This program was supported by the funds from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) through the Supra Institutional Project (SIP 1308) and fellowship to the first author. This article has NIO contribution number of 5814.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. V. S. S. Sarma.

Additional information

Communicated by James L. Pinckney

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Viswanadham, R., Bharathi, M.D. & Sarma, V.V.S.S. Variations in Concentrations and Fluxes of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the Indian Estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts 39, 695–706 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-015-0039-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • DMS
  • Fluxes
  • River discharge
  • Nutrients inputs
  • Indian monsoonal estuaries