Contrasting Sensitivity of Marine Biota to UV-B Radiation Between Southern and Northern Hemispheres
- First Online:
The asymmetries between hemispheres in stratospheric ozone concentration and atmospheric aerosols, leading to differences in incident ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, were examined in order to resolve the differential forcing of adaptation and selection of marine organisms under elevated UV-B radiation. This analysis was based on a meta-analysis including 2,060 experimental assessments of responses of marine organisms from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres to UV-B. Stratospheric ozone concentration in spring and summer decreased by 11.0 % in the Southern and 2.7 % in the Northern between 1970 and 2012, indicating higher UV-B incidence on the Southern Hemisphere. The ratio of studies on UV-B radiation impacts performed in the Southern against the Northern Hemisphere was 0.34 indicating higher research effort in the Northern Hemisphere. Responses of marine biota to UV-B indicated significantly more resistance of marine organisms tested from the Southern Hemisphere (P < 0.01) to UV-B radiation. Marine plants (angiosperm, macroalgae and microalgae) showed no significant differences in UV-B sensitivity between hemispheres, but the family Ulvaceae, showed significantly more resistance to UV-B for organisms tested from the Southern Hemisphere (P < 0.005). Echinodermata tested from the Southern Hemisphere were more resistant to UV-B (P < 0.005), as well as early stages of marine organisms (P < 0.001). Responses at the molecular and cellular level and demographic levels showed lower UV-B effects in the organisms tested from the Southern Hemisphere. The results obtained suggest that marine organisms from the Southern Hemisphere tend to be more resistant to UV-B radiation than those in the Northern Hemisphere.
KeywordsNorth South UV-B Marine biota Ozone Global change
- Gaston, K.J. 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405: 220–227.Google Scholar
- Herman, J.R. 2010. Global increase in UV irradiance during the past 30 years (1979–2008) estimated from satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D04203.Google Scholar
- Iribarne, O and P. Martinetto. 2014. A view from the South on the changing coastal and estuarine environment. Estuaries and Coasts, This IssueGoogle Scholar
- Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Scholeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyrö, E. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtass, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. von der Tarasick Gathen, K.A. Waller, and N.S. Zinoviev. 2011. Unprecedented arctic ozone loss in 2011. Nature 478: 469–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Munakata, N., S. Kazadzis, D. Bolseé, N. Schucht, T. Koskela, A. Karpetchko, C. Meleti, C. Casiccia, M.B. Rosa, T. Saida, C. Nishigori, K. Ogata, K. Imafuku, C.M. Liu, S. Lestari, M. Kanoko, S. Cornain, K. Mulyadi, and K. Hieda. 2009. Variations and trends of biologically effective doses of solar ultraviolet radiation in Asia, Europe and South America from 1999 to 2007. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 8: 1117–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NASA. 2009. Ozone hole watch, annual record since 1979. http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html.
- Pichrtová, M., D. Remias, L.A. Lewis, and A. Holzinger. 2013. Changes in phenolic compounds and cellular ultrastructure of arctic and antarctic strains of Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) after exposure to experimentally enhanced UV to PAR ratio. Microbial Ecology 65: 68–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rozema, J., L.O. Björn, J.F. Bornman, A. Gaberšcik, D.P. Häder, T. Trošt, M. Germ, M. Klische, A. Groniger, P.P. Sinha, M. Lebert, Y.Y. He, R. Buffoni-Hall, N.V.J. de Bakker, J. van de Staaij, and B.B. Meijkamp. 2002. The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems—an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-absorbing compounds. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology Biology 66: 2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seckmeyer, G., M. Glandorf, C. Wichers, R. McKenzie, D. Henriques, F. Carvalho, A. Webb, A. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, P. Werle, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, J. Gröbner, H. Slaper, P. denOuterl, and U. Feisterm. 2008. Europe’s darker atmosphere in the UV-B. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 7: 925–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stenseth, N.C., G. Ottersen, J.W. Hurrell, A. Mysterud, M. Lima, K.S. Chan, N.G. Yoccoz, and B. Adlandsvik. 2003. Studying climate effects on ecology through the use of climate indices: the North Atlantic Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation and beyond. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270: 2087–2096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 2007. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Res. and Monit. Proj. Rep. 50, Geneva.Google Scholar