Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Genetic Diversity of Bangladeshi Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) over Time and Across Seedling Sources

  • Published:
Economic Botany Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Crop genetic diversity is important, but may be lost due to intentional or non-intentional selection processes. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is the national fruit of Bangladesh, where it displays great morphological diversity, but recent work suggests diversity may be declining. This study tests whether genetic diversity is changing over time and investigates a possible cause—a shift from direct seed planting by tree owners to purchasing seed-propagated saplings from nurseries, a method that has increased in popularity since the 1980s. We measure genetic diversity over time (across both reported tree age and tree size classes) using 13 microsatellite loci for 361 jackfruit individuals collected throughout Bangladesh. We find downward trends in diversity over time (regardless of seedling source), and no change in diversity between owner seed-propagated and nursery seed-propagated sapling trees that were planted since the early 1980s. Jackfruit, long an important crop in South and Southeast Asia, is gaining global popularity. Because it is a long-lived, out-crossing crop, changes in genetic diversity may occur gradually, and locally adapted alleles could be lost in transitioning to commercialized uniform cultivars. It is important to measure and conserve diversity baselines before selection bottlenecks occur in underutilized crops, like jackfruit, on the verge of increased industrialization.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

Literature Cited

  • Agrawala, S., T. Ota, A. Uddin Ahmed, J. Smith, and M. van Aalst. 2003. Development and climate change in Bangladesh: Focus on coastal flooding and the Sundarbans. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

    Google Scholar 

  • Albrecht, U., M. Bordas, B. Lamb, B. Meyering, and K. D. Bowman. 2017. Influence of propagation method on root architecture and other traits of young citrus rootstock plants. HortScience 52(11):1569–1576.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ali, Q. L. 2005. Socio-economic impacts and lessons learning from the management of Social Forestry Programme of Bangladesh, Final report. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Asia Pacific Network for Global Change Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andow, D. A. and C. Zwahlen. 2006. Assessing environmental risks of transgenic plants. Ecology Letters 9(2):196–214.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Azad, A. K., J. G. Jones, N. Haq. 2007. Assessing morphological and isozyme variation of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) in Bangladesh. Agroforestry Systems 71(2):109–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2013. 2012 statistical yearbook of Bangladesh, 32nd edition. Statistics and Information Division, Ministry of Planning Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Byrne, P. F., G. M. Volk, C. Gardner, M. A. Gore, P. W. Simon, and S. Smith. 2018. Sustaining the future of plant breeding: The critical role of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. Crop Science 58(2):451–468.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, R. J. and N. Ledesma. 2003. The exotic jackfruit. Coral Gables, Florida: Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, L. J., D. S. Lee, Z. P. Song, H. S. Suh, and B. Lu. 2004. Gene flow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) to its weedy and wild relatives. Annals of Botany 93(1):67–73.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Christensen, J. H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R. K. Kolli, W. T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C. G. Menéndez, J. Räisänen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr, and P. Whetton. 2007. Regional climate projections. In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Faria, A. F., V. V. de Rosso, and A. Z. Mercadante. 2009. Carotenoid composition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), determined by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 64(2):108–115.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dyer, G. A. and J. E. Taylor. 2008. A crop population perspective on maize seed systems in Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(2):470–475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyer, G. A., C. González, D. C. Lopera. 2011. Informal “seed” systems and the management of gene flow in traditional agroecosystems: The case of cassava in Cauca, Colombia. PLoS ONE 6(12):e29067.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • El-Sawa, S. F. 1998. Pollination and breeding of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) in South Florida. Master of Science thesis, Florida International University. FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 3129.

  • FAO. 2010. The second report on the state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gbègbèlègbè, S. D., J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, R. Adeoti, J. Lusk, and O. Coulibaly. 2015. The estimated ex ante economic impact of Bt cowpea in Niger, Benin and Northern Nigeria. Agricultural Economics 46(4):563–577.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Golmirzaie, A. M. and R. Ortiz. 2004. Diversity in reproductive characteristics of potato landraces and cultivars for producing true seed. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51(7):759–763.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammer, K. and K. Khoshbakht. 2005. Towards a “red list” for crop plant species. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52(3):249–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haq, N. 2006. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus. Vol. 10: Crops for the future. Southampton, U.K.: International Centre for Underutilised Crops.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haq, N. and A. Hughes. 2002. Fruits for the future in Asia. Southampton, U.K.: International Centre for Underutilised Crops.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heal, G., B. Walker, S. Levin, K. Arrow, P. Dasgupta, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, K. Maler, N. Kautsky, and J. Lubchenco. 2004. Genetic diversity and interdependent crop choices in agriculture. Resource and Energy Economics 26(2):75–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heenkenda, H. M. S. 2014. Better future through fruit crop research. Horana, Sri Lanka: Fruit Research and Development Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heiser, C. B. 1987. Aspects of unconscious selection and the evolution of domesticated plants. Euphytica 37(1):77–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heywood, V., A. Casas, B. Ford-Lloyd, S. Kell, and N. Maxted. 2007. Conservation and sustainable use of crop wild relatives. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 121(3):245–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hocking, D., A. Hocking, and K. Islam. 1996. Tree farms in Bangladesh: Farmer’ species preferences for homestead trees, survival of new tree planting, and main causes of tree death. Agroforestry Systems 33(3):231–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hossain, A. K. M. A. 1996. Status report on genetic resources of jackfruit in Bangladesh. Singapore: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Regional Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • ICUC. 2003. Fruits for the future: Jackfruit. Factsheet 6. Southampton, U.K.: International Centre for Underutilised Crops.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaenicke, H. 2006. Under-utilized crops can play a crucial role in food and livelihood security for the poor. Press Release. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Centre for Underutilised Crops.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jagadeesh, S. L., B .S. Reddy, N. Basavaraj, G. S. K. Swamy, K. Gorbal, L. Hegde, G. S. V. Raghavan, and S. T. Kajjidoni. 2007. Inter tree variability for fruit quality in jackfruit selections of Western Ghats of India. Scientiae Horticulturae 112(4):382–387.

  • Jarrett, F. M. 1959. Studies in Artocarpus and allied genera, III. A revision of Artocarpus subgenus Artocarpus. Journal of Arnold Arboretum 40:113–155, 298–368.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalinowski, S. T. 2004. Counting alleles with rarefaction: Private alleles and hierarchical sampling designs. Conservation Genetics 5:539–543.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kanjilal, U. N., P. C. Kanjilal, and A. Das. 1940. Flora of Assam. Published under the Authority of the Government of Assam, India.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, R., N. J. C. Zerega, S. Hossain, and M. I. Zuberi. 2010. Jackfruit diversity in Bangladesh: Land use and artificial selection. Economic Botany 64(2):124–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khoury, C. K., A. D. Bjorkman, H. Dempewolf, J. Ramirez-Villegas, L. Guarino, A. Jarvis, L. H. Rieseberg, and P. C. Struik. 2014. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111(11):4001–4006.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Krishna, V. V. and M. Qaim. 2008. Potential impacts of Bt eggplant on economic surplus and farmers’ health in India. Agricultural Economics 38(2):167–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Largeman-Roth, F. 2017. Jackfruit: This BBQ pulled “pork” is the healthy hot food trend you need to try. The Today Show. https://www.today.com/food/what-jackfruit-how-eat-it-bbq-pulled-pork-recipe-t106938 (21 August 2017).

  • Le Clerc, V., V. Cadot, M. Canadas, J. Lallemand, D. Guèrin, and F. Boulineau. 2006. Indicators to assess temporal genetic diversity in the French Catalogue: No losses for maize and peas. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 113(7):1197–1209.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lieberman, D., M. Lieberman, G. Hartshorn, and R. Peralta. 1985. Growth rates and age-size relationships of tropical wet forest trees in Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1:97–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lukaszkiewicz, J., M. Kosmala, M. Chrapka, and J. Borowski. 2005. Determining the age of streetside Tilia cordata trees with a DBH-based model. Journal of Arboriculture 31(6):280–284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mir, R. R., J. Kumar, H. S. Balyan, and P. K. Gupta. 2012. A study of genetic diversity among Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released during last 100 years. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59(5):717–726.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moon, H. S., J. S. Nicholson, A. Heineman, K. Lion, R. van der Hoeven, A. J. Hayes, and R. S. Lewis. 2009. Changes in genetic diversity of U.S. flue-cured tobacco germplasm over seven decades of cultivar development. Crop Science 49:498–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Orwig, J. 2015. Experts are hailing this exotic fruit that tastes like pulled pork as a “miracle” crop, which could save millions from starvation. Business Insider. http://www.businessinsider.com/this-miracle-fruit-tastes-like-pulled-pork-2015-8 (21 August 2017).

  • Peakall, R. and P. E. Smouse. 2006. GENALEX 6: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6:288–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petit, R. J. and A. Hampe. 2006. Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:187–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Plotly Technologies Inc. 2015. Collaborative data science. Montréal, Canada: Plotly Technologies, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pujol, B., F. Renoux, M. Elias, L. Rival, and D. McKey. 2007. The unappreciated ecology of landrace populations: Conservation consequences of soil seed banks in cassava. Biological Conservation 136:541–551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pushpakumara, D. K. N. G., H. M. S. Heenkenda, B. Marambe, R. H. G. Ranil, B. V. R. Punyawardena, J. Weerahewa, G. L. L. P. Silva, D. Hunter, and J. Rizvi. 2016. Kandyan home gardens: A time-tested good practice from Sri Lanka for conserving tropical fruit tree diversity. In: Tropical fruit tree diversity: Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation, eds. B. Sthapit, H. A. H. Lamers, R. V. Ramanatha, and A. Bailey. New York, USA: Bioversity International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quddus, M. A. 2011. The cropland agroforestry experiences of the Village and Farm Forestry Project in northwest Bangladesh. Gazipur, Bangladesh: Proceedings of National Workshop on Agroforestry, 229–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • R Development Core Team. 2009. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ragone, D. 1997. Breadfruit. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops series. Vol. 10. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahman, M. L. and R. K. Talukder. 2001. Interlinkages of agricultural diversification in Bangladesh. MAP Focus Study Series No. 9. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahman, A. K. M. M., N. Nahar, A. J. Mian, and M. Mosihuzzaman. 1999. Variation of carbohydrate composition of two forms of fruit from jack tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L) with maturity and climatic conditions. Food Chemistry 65(1):91–97.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rajan, S., R. Kishore, S. Ahmad, and Vijay. 2013. Maiku Lai: Finding the balance between commercial and seedling trees in Sarsanda. In: Custodian farmers of agricultural biodiversity: Selected profiles from south and south east Asia, Proceedings of the Workshop on Custodian Farmers of Agricultural Biodiversity, eds. B. R. Sthapit, H. Lamers, and R. V. Ramanatha. New Delhi, India: Bioversity International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajan, S., H. A. H. Lamers, and B. Lal. 2016. A set of interconnected practices which enhance and conserve mango diversity in Malihabad, India. In: Tropical fruit tree diversity: Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation, eds. B. Sthapit, H. A. H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao, and A. Bailey. New York: Bioversity International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reif, J., S. Hamrit, M. Heckenberger, W. Schipprack, H. Maurer, M. Bohn, and A. Melchinger. 2005a. Trends in genetic diversity among European maize cultivars and their parental components during the past 50 years. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 111(5):838–845.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reif, J., P. Zhang, S. Dreisigacker, M. L. Warburton, M. van Ginkel, D. Hoisington, M. Bohn, and A. E. Melchinger. 2005b. Wheat genetic diversity trends during domestication and breeding. Theoretical Applied and Genetics 110(5):859–864.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schnell, R. J., C. T. Olano, R. J. Campbell, and J. S. Brown. 2001. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity within a jackfruit germplasm collection. Scientiae Horticulturae 91(3–4):261–274.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schuelke, M. 2000. An economic method for the fluorescent labeling of PCR fragments. Nature Biotechnology 18:233–234.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shyamalamma S., S. B. C. Chandra, M. Hegde, and P. Naryanswamy. 2008. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Genetics and Molecular Research 7(3):645–656.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, N. J. H. and R. E. Schultes. 1990. Deforestation and shrinking crop gene-pools in Amazonia. Environmental Conservation 17(3):227–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sthapit, B., H. A. H. Lamers, R. V. Ramanatha, A. Bailey, P. Sajise, and P. Quek. 2016. On-farm and in situ conservation of tropical fruit tree diversity: Context and conceptual framework. In: Tropical fruit tree diversity: Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation, eds. B. Sthapit, H. A. H. Lamers, R. V. Ramanatha, and A. Bailey, 1–22. New York: Bioversity International.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Szpiech, Z. A., M. Jakobsson, and N. A. Rosenberg. 2008. ADZE: A rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations. Bioinformatics 24(21):2498–2504.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van de Wouw, M., C. Kik, T. van Hintum, R. van Treuren, and B. Visser. 2010a. Genetic erosion in crops: Concept, research results and challenges. Plant Genetic Resources 8(1):1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van de Wouw, M., T. van Hintum, C. Kik, R. van Treuren, and B. Visser. 2010b. Genetic diversity trends in twentieth century crop cultivars: A meta analysis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 120(6):1241–1252.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Esbroeck, G. A., D. T. Bowman, D. S. Calhoun, and O. L. May. 1998. Changes in the genetic diversity of cotton in the USA from 1970 to 1995. Crop Science 38(1):33–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Varshney, K., J. C. Glaszmann, H. Leung, and J. M. Ribaut. 2010. More genomic resources for less-studied crops. Trends in Biotechnology 289(9):452–460.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Witherup, C. 2013. Genetic diversity of Bangladeshi jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae). Master’s thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

  • Witherup, C., D. Ragone, T. Wiesner-Hanks, B. Irish, B. Scheffler, S. Simpson, F. Zee, M. I. Zuberi, and N. J. C. Zerega. 2013. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species. Application in Plant Sciences 1(7):1200423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ying-zhi, L., Q. Mao, F. Feng, and C. H. Ye. 2010. Genetic diversity within a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) germplasm collection in China using AFLP markers. Agriculture Sciences in China 9(9):1263–1270.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zerega, N. J. C., M. N. Supardi, and T. J. Motley. 2010. Phylogeny and recircumscription of Artocarpeae (Moraceae) with a focus on Artocarpus. Systematic Botany 35(4):766–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zerega, N. J. C., T. Wiesner-Hanks, D. Ragone, B. Irish, B. Scheffler, S. Simpson, and F. Zee. 2015. Diversity of the breadfruit complex (Artocarpus, Moraceae): Genetic characterization of critical germplasm. Tree Genetics and Genomes. 11: 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-014-0824-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the private jackfruit growers of Bangladesh and organizations listed in Table 1 for providing access to study trees and data about tree age and propagation method, Ruby Khan and Abdur Rahim for assistance in the field, Jeremie Fant and Deidre Reitz for assistance in the laboratory, and two anonymous reviewers for insightful comments that improved the manuscript quality.

Funding

This study was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF DEB REVSYS 0919119), a Plant Biology and Conservation Award from Northwestern University, and an American Society of Plant Taxonomists Graduate Student Research Grant.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Colby Witherup or Nyree J. C. Zerega.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic Supplementary Material

ESM 1

(DOCX 24 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Witherup, C., Zuberi, M.I., Hossain, S. et al. Genetic Diversity of Bangladeshi Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) over Time and Across Seedling Sources. Econ Bot 73, 233–248 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-019-09452-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-019-09452-5

Key Words

Navigation