Advertisement

Factors Determining the Use and Cultivation of Moringa oleifera Lam. in the Republic of Benin

  • Kisito Gandji
  • Valère K. Salako
  • A. Belarmain Fandohan
  • Achille E. Assogbadjo
  • Romain L. Glèlè Kakaï
Article
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Factors Determining the Use and Cultivation of Moringa oleifera Lam. in the Republic of Benin. Despite its nutritious leaves and considerable economic importance, the agroforestry species Moringa oleifera Lam. is still considered a neglected and underutilized species. To contribute to the development of an effective valorization strategy for M. oleifera, this study identified factors driving its use and cultivation in Benin. To this end, an ethnobotanical survey through individual interviews (n = 801) was performed in 46 localities across biogeographical zones in Benin. Conditional inference tree–based classification models allowed us to identify factors that mostly influence the use, cultivation, and cultivation system of M. oleifera. Awareness, knowledge of the plant biology, gender, cultivation system, and age are factors influencing the use of M. oleifera. Cultivation systems are driven by ethnicity, knowledge of the plant’s biology, and the main socioprofessional activity. Effective valorization of M. oleifera requires awareness rising on its usefulness while providing knowledge on the plant biology.

Key Words

Africa agroforestry system driving factors Moringa oleifera L. use 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge help from local authorities, populations, and farmers during data collection.

Funding Information

KG was supported by a National Doctoral Scholarship of the government of the Republic of Benin. Additional support was obtained from an AGNES (African-German Network of Excellence in Science) Junior Research Grant attributed to VKS.

Literature Cited

  1. Adam, S. and M. Boko. 1993. Le Benin. Cotonou: Les éditions du Flamboyant/EDICEF.Google Scholar
  2. Adebayo, A. G., H. A. Akintoye, A. O. Olufolaji, O. O. Aina, M. T. Olatunji, and A. O. Shokalu. 2011. Vegetative development and nutrient uptake of M. oleifera Lam. in the nursery. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 10:74–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adomou, A. C., B. Sinsin, and L. J. G. Van der Maesen. 2006. Notulae Florae Beninensis 12: Phytosociological and chorological approaches to phytogeography: A meso-scale study in Benin. Systematics and Geography of Plants 76(2):155–178.Google Scholar
  4. Afuang, W., P. Siddhuraju, and K. Becker. 2003. Comparative nutritional evaluation of raw, methanol extracted residues and methanol extracts of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves on growth performance and feed utilization in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture Research 34(13):1147–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agoyi, E. E., A. E. Assogbadjo, G. Gouwakinnou, F. A. Y. Okou, and B. Sinsin. 2014. Ethnobotanical assessment of Moringa oleifera in the Southern Benin (West Africa). Ethnobotany Research and Applications 12:551–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———., E. A. Padonou, W. Amoussa, A. E. Assogbadjo, R. Glèlè Kakaï, and B. Sinsin. 2015. Morphological variation, cultivation techniques and management practices of Moringa oleifera in Southern Benin (West Africa). International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 6(3):97–105.Google Scholar
  7. AGVSA. 2014. Analyse Globale de la Vulnérabilité et de la Sécurité Alimentaire (AGVSA). Programme Alimentaire Mondial, Service de l’Analyse de la Sécurité Alimentaire (VAM).Google Scholar
  8. Albuquerque, U. P., G. T. Soldati, S. S. Sieber, M. A. Ramos, J. C. De Sá, and L. C. De Souza. 2011. The use of plants in the medical system of the Fulni–ô people (NE Brazil): A perspective on age and gender. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133(2):866–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Animashaun, J. O. and A. A. Toye. 2013. Feasibility analysis of leaf–based Moringa oleifera plantation in the Nigerian Guinea Savannah: Case study of University of Ilorin moringa plantation. Agrosearch 13(3):218–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anwar, F. and U. Rashid. 2007. Physico–chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera seeds and seed oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(5):1443–1453.Google Scholar
  11. Avohou, H. T., R. S. Vodouhe, A. Dansi, B. Kpeki, and M. Bellon. 2012. Ethnobotanical factors influencing the use and management of wild edible plants of agricultural environments in Benin. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 10:571–592.Google Scholar
  12. Azeez, F. A., M. O. Nosiru, N. A. Clement, D. A. Awodele, D. Ojo, and O. Arabomen. 2013. Importance of Moringa oleifera tree to human livelihood: A case study of Isokan local government area in Osun state. Elixir Agriculture 55:12959–12963.Google Scholar
  13. Dagnelie, P. 1998. Statistiques théoriques et appliquées. Brussels: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  14. Dansi, A., A. Adjatin, H. Adoukonou–Sagbadja, V. Faladé, H. Yedomonhan, D. Odou, and B. Dossou. 2008a. Traditional leafy vegetables and their use in the Benin Republic. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55:1239–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ———.,———, R. Vodouhè, K. Adéoti, H. Adoukonou–Sagbadja, V. Faladé, P. Yédomonhan, A. Akouegninou, and K. Akpagana. 2008b. Biodiversité des légumes feuilles traditionnels consommés au Bénin. Porto–Novo: Bibliothèque Nationale.Google Scholar
  16. Dao, M. C. E. and K. H. Kabore. 2015. Morphological characteristic variation of eleven provenances of Moringa oleifera seedlings grown in the Northern Sudanese area of Burkina Faso. African Journal of Plant Sciences 9(10):401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Da–Silva, J. P. V, T. M. Serra, M. Gossmann, C. R. Wolf, M. R. Meneghetti, and S. M. P. Meneghetti. 2010. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production. Biomass and Bioenergy 34(10):1527–1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawson, I. K., A. Lengkeek, J. C. Weber, and R. Jamnadass. 2009. Managing genetic variation in tropical trees: Linking knowledge with action in agroforestry ecosystems for improved conservation and enhanced livelihoods. Biodiversity and Conservation 18(4):969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dos Santos, A. R. F., R. Silva–Mann, R. A. Ferreira, and B. A. de Souza. 2011. Water pre–hydration as priming for Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds under salt stress. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 14:201–207.Google Scholar
  20. Edward, E., S. A. O. Chamshama, Y. M. Ngaga, and M.A. Mndolwa. 2014. Survival, growth and biomass production of Moringa oleifera provenances at Gairo inland plateau and Ruvu Coastal Region in Tanzania. African Journal of Plant Sciences 8(1):54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fadoyin, A. S., S. O. Oyewole, F. A. Ayanrinde, G. A. Baba, and T. A. Erhabor. 2014. Socio–economic factors influencing adoption of Moringa oleifera water purification by farmers in Kaduna state, Nigeria. International Letters of Natural Sciences 15(1):85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gadzirayi, C. T., S. M. Mudyiwa, J. F. Mupangwa, and J. Gotosa. 2013. Cultivation practices and utilisation of Moringa oleifera provenances by small holder farmers: Case of Zimbabwe. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2(2):152–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ganesan, S. K., R. Singh, D. R. Choudhury, J. Bharadwaj, V. Gupta, and A. Singode. 2014. Genetic diversity and population structure study of drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) using morphological and SSR markers. Industrial Crops and Products 60:316–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaoué, O. G., M. A. Coe, M. Bond, G. Hart, B. C. Seyler, and H. McMillen. 2017. Theories and major hypotheses in ethnobotany. Economic Botany 71(3):269–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gbedomon, R. C., A. E. Assogbadjo, V. K. Salako, A. B. Fandohan, and R. Glèlè Kakaï. 2016. Exploring the spatial configurations of home gardens in Benin. Scientia Horticulturae 213:13–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.10.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. González–Insuasti, M. S. and J. Caballero. 2007. Managing plant resources: How intensive can it be? Human Ecology 35(3):303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanazaki, N., D. F. Herbst, M. S. Marques, and I. Vandebroek. 2013. Evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome in ethnobotanical research. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ———. and A. Zeileis. 2015. partykit: A modular toolkit for recursive partytioning in R. Journal of Machine Learning Research 16:3905–3909. http://jmlr.org/papers/v16/hothorn15a.html (21 January 2017)
  29. Hothorn, T., K. Hornik, and A. Zeileis. 2006. Unbiased recursive partitioning: A conditional inference framework. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 14(3):675–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. INSAE. 2013. Institut National de Statistique Appliquée et d’Economie (INSAE). Quatrième Recensement Général de la population et de l’habitation (RGPH–4). Résultats provisoires: Caractéristiques générales de la population. Cotonou: INSAE.Google Scholar
  31. Judex, M., J. Röhrig, O. Schulz, and H–P. Thamm, eds. 2009. IMPETUS Atlas du Bénin. Résultats de recherche 2000–2007. Troisième édition. Bonn: Département de Géographie, Université de Bonn.Google Scholar
  32. Madi, O. P., S. Bourou, and N. Woin. 2012. Utilisations et importances socio–économiques du Moringa oleifera Lam. en zone de savanes d’Afrique Centrale. Cas de la ville de Maroua au Nord–Cameroun. Journal of Applied Biosciences 60:4421–4432.Google Scholar
  33. Muluvi, G. M., J. I. Sprent, N. Soranzo, J. Provan, D. Odee, G. Folkard, J. W. McNicol, and W. Powell. 1999. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of genetic variation in Moringa oleifera Lam. Molecular Ecology 8:463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. N’Danikou, S., E. G. Achigan–Dako, D. A. Tchokponhoue, C. O. A. Agossou, C. A. Houdegbe, R. S. Vodouhe, and A. Ahanchede. 2015. Modelling socioeconomic determinants for cultivation and in–situ conservation of Vitex doniana Sweet (Black plum), a wild harvested economic plant in Benin. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 11(1):28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nagy, K., J. Reiczigel, A. Harnos, A. Schrott, and P. Kabai. 2010. Tree–based methods as an alternative to logistic regression in revealing risk factors of crib–biting in horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 30(1):21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nouman, W., M. T. Siddiqui, S. M. A. Basra, H. Farooq, M. Zubair, and T. Gull. 2013. Biomass production and nutritional quality of Moringa oleifera as a field crop. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37:410–419.Google Scholar
  37. Pandey, A., K. Pradheep, R. Gupta, E. R. Nayar, and D. C. Bhandari. 2011. ‘Drumstick tree’ (Moringa oleifera Lam.): A multipurpose potential species in India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58:456–460.Google Scholar
  38. Popoola, J. O. and O. O. Obembe. 2013. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 150:682–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. ———. and B. O. Oluyisola, and O. O. Obembe. 2014. Genetic diversity in Moringa oleifera from Nigeria using fruit morpho–metric characters & random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Covenant Journal of Physical and Life Sciences 1(2):43–60.Google Scholar
  40. R Core Team. 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. http://www.R-project.org/ (1 January 2017).
  41. Reyes–Sánchez, N., S. Ledin, and I. Ledin. 2006. Biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera under different management regimes in Nicaragua. Agroforestry Systems 66:231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rockwood, J. L., B. G. Anderson, and D. A. Casamatta. 2013. Potential uses of Moringa oleifera and an examination of antibiotic efficacy conferred by M. oleifera seed and leaf extracts using crude extraction techniques available to underserved indigenous populations. International Journal of Phytotherapy Research 3(2):61–71.Google Scholar
  43. Saint Sauveur, A. 2001. Moringa exploitation in the world: State of knowledge and challenges. In: Proceedings of the Development Potential for Moringa Products, Dar Es Salam, Tanzania, 29 October–2 November 2001.Google Scholar
  44. Salako, V. K., B. Fandohan, B. Kassa, A. E. Assogbadjo, A. F. R. Idohou, R. C. Gbedomon, S. Chakeredza, M. E. Dulloo, and R. Glèlè Kakaï. 2013. Home gardens: An assessment of their biodiversity and potential contribution to conservation of threatened species and crop wild relatives in Benin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 61:313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shackleton, C. M., S. E. Shackleton, E. Buiten, and N. Bird. 2007. The importance of dry woodlands and forests in rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation in South Africa. Forest Policy and Economics 9(5):558–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shahzad, U., M. A. Khan, M. J. Jaskani, I. A. Khan, and S. S. Korban. 2013. Genetic diversity and population structure of Moringa oleifera. Conservation Genetics 14(6):1161–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Singh, Y. and K. Prasad. 2013. Moringa oleifera leaf as functional food powder: Characterization and uses. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology 4(4):317–324.Google Scholar
  48. Sreelatha, S. and P. R. Padma. 2009. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 64:303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Talberth, J. and S. Leopold. 2013. Reviving dormant ethnobotany: The role of women and plant knowledge in a food secure world. Washington, D.C.: Center for Sustainable Economy.Google Scholar
  50. Timsuksai, P. and A. T. Rambo. 2016. The influence of culture on agroecosystem structure: A comparison of the spatial patterns of home gardens of different ethnic groups in Thailand and Vietnam http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id= https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Torimiro, D. O., S. M. Odeyinka, V. O. Okorie, and M. A. Akinsuyi. 2009. Gender analysis of socio–cultural perception of Moringa oleifera amongst farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of International Women Studies 10(4):188–202.Google Scholar
  52. Voeks, R. A. and A. Leony. 2004. Forgetting the forest: Assessing medicinal plant erosion in eastern Brazil. Economic Botany 58:94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zeileis, A., F. Leisch, K. Hornik, and C. Kleiber. 2002. strucchange: An R package for testing for structural change in linear regression models. Journal of Statistical Software 7(2):1–38. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v07/i02/ (21 January 2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Biomathématiques et d’Estimations Forestières (LABEF), Faculté des Sciences AgronomiquesUniversité d’Abomey–CalaviCotonouBenin
  2. 2.Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Faculté des Sciences AgronomiquesUniversité d’Abomey–CalaviCotonouBenin
  3. 3.Unité de Recherche en Foresterie, Agroforesterie et Biogéographie, Ecole de Foresterie et Ingénierie du BoisUniversité Nationale d’AgricultureKétouBénin

Personalised recommendations