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Assessing Potato Psyllid Haplotypes in Potato Crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

Abstract

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, Western, Northwestern, and Southwestern haplotypes. Zebra chip was reported in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States for the first time in 2011, and the Lso-infected psyllids collected from zebra chip-affected fields were identified as the Western haplotype. Additional studies have reported a mix of the Western and Northwestern psyllid haplotypes in the Pacific Northwest. The present study further examined psyllid population dynamics over the duration of the 2012 potato season in the Pacific Northwest by haplotype analysis of 864 potato psyllids collected from potato fields in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. In the Yakima Valley of Washington and the lower Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, the Northwestern haplotype was predominant (78 %), and was detected earlier in the season than the Western haplotype. Interestingly, in south-central Idaho, all four psyllid haplotypes were identified, but the predominant haplotype was the Western haplotype (77 %). Here, Northwestern psyllids were detected early in the season from June to mid-August, whereas Central psyllids were detected in late July and thereafter. These results suggest that haplotype composition of psyllid populations in potato fields throughout the 2012 growing season in south-central Idaho differed greatly from those in Washington and Oregon. Additionally, all psyllids were analyzed for the presence of Lso, and no Lso-positive psyllids were found in Washington and Oregon, whereas Lso-positive psyllids were found in south-central Idaho. These Lso-positive psyllids consisted of the Western, Northwestern, and Central haplotypes.

Resumen

El psílido de la papa, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), es un vector de la bacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) que se ha asociado con la enfermedad económicamente devastadora del rayado del tubérculo (zebra chip) de la papa. A la fecha se han identificado cuatro haplotipos del psílido de la papa, que incluye a los de la parte Central, Oeste, Noroccidental y Suroccidental. La zebra chip se reportó en cultivos de papa en el Pacífico Noroccidental de los EUA por primera vez en 2011, y los psílidos infectados con Lso de campos afectados por zebra chip se identificaron como el haplotipo del Oeste. Estudios adicionales han reportado una mezcla de haplotipos del psílido del Oeste y Noroccidental en el Pacífico Noroccidental. El presente estudio examinó aún más la dinámica poblacional del psílido durante la duración del ciclo de cultivo de 2012 de la papa en el Pacífico Noroccidental mediante el análisis de los haplotipos de 864 psílidos colectados de campos de papa en Washington, Oregon y Idaho. El haplotipo Noroccidental fue predominante (78 %) en el Valle de Yakima de Washington y en la ribera baja del Columbia de Washington y Oregon, y se detectó más temprano durante el ciclo que el haplotipo del Oeste. Llama la atención que en el centro sur de Idaho se identificaron los cuatro haplotipos del psílido, pero el predominante fue el del Oeste (77 %). Aquí, los psílidos del Noroccidente se detectaron temprano en el ciclo, de junio a mediados de agosto, mientras que los psílidos Centrales se detectaron desde finales de julio en adelante. Estos resultados sugieren que la composición de haplotipos de las poblaciones del psílido en los campos de papa a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo de 2012 en el centro sur de Idaho fue diferente en gran medida a la de Washington y Oregon. Además, todos los psílidos se analizaron para la presencia de Lso, y no se encontraron positivos en Washington y Oregon, mientras que los Lso-positivos se encontraron en el centro sur de Idaho. Estos psílidos Lso-positivos consistieron de los haplotipos del Oeste, Noroccidental y Central.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Millie Heidt, Francisco de la Rosa, Sawyer Delp, Sahar Eid, Cheryn Clayton, Neyle Perdomo, Amy Carroll, Vince Adamson, Megan Williams, and Carlie Wilkins for their technical assistance in the field and laboratory. Financial support for this research was provided by the Washington State Potato Commission, the Idaho Potato Commission, the Idaho State Department of Agriculture, USDA-SCRI Project # 2009-51181-20176 and USDA-RAMP Project # 2009-51101-05892. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the United States Department of Agriculture or the Agricultural Research Service of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

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Correspondence to Joseph E. Munyaneza.

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Swisher, K.D., Sengoda, V.G., Dixon, J. et al. Assessing Potato Psyllid Haplotypes in Potato Crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Am. J. Potato Res. 91, 485–491 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12230-014-9378-8

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Keywords

  • Potato diseases
  • Psyllid haplotypes
  • Liberibacter