American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 90, Issue 5, pp 460–469 | Cite as

Starch Characteristics of Modern and Heirloom Potato Cultivars

  • Diego Fajardo
  • Kathleen G. Haynes
  • Shelley Jansky
Article

Abstract

In a number of ways, modern potato breeding efforts differ from those that created heirloom cultivars. As a result of the rapid expansion of the potato processing industry in the mid twentieth century, potato breeders shifted their focus from fresh market varieties to those intended for the fry and chip markets. Selection for higher dry matter content and lower reducing sugar levels in tubers was successful. This study sought to determine whether modern processing cultivars differ from heirloom cultivars for two major characteristics of tuber starch, amylose content and starch granule morphology. Since breeding efforts for processing potatoes have focused on the maintenance of tuber quality during storage, these parameters were measured in both fresh and stored tubers. Twenty cultivars selected to span the range of cultivar release dates in the U.S. were grown at Hancock, WI in 2009 and 2010 and evaluated for tuber amylose content and measurements of starch granule surface area, length, width, length to width ratio, and smoothness. These traits were found to be stable across years and during storage. Significant differences in the amylose content and starch granule morphology exist among cultivars, but there is no clear distinction between modern and heirloom cultivars. Genetic variation for amylose content and starch granule morphology was found within the set of clones sampled for this study. However, germplasm with higher amylose content will need to be identified and utilized in breeding if the nutritional benefits associated with high fiber and low glycemic index are to be realized.

Keywords

Starch Solanum tuberosum Resistant starch Mealiness Amylose Amylopectin 

Resumen

De diferentes maneras los esfuerzos modernos en el mejoramiento de la papa difieren de aquellos que crearon las variedades clásicas. Como resultado de la rápida expansión de la industria del procesado de la papa a mediados del siglo veinte, los fitomejoradores de la papa se reenfocaron de variedades de mercado fresco a aquellas para mercado de las frituras. La selección para alto contenido de materia seca y bajos niveles de azúcares reductores en tubérculos fue exitosa. Este estudio buscó determinar si las variedades modernas para procesamiento difieren de las clásicas en dos características principales de almidón en el tubérculo, contenido de amilosa y morfología del gránulo de almidón. Considerando que los esfuerzos de mejoramiento para papa de proceso se ha enfocado en el mantenimiento de la calidad el tubérculo durante el almacenamiento, se midieron estos parámetros tanto en tubérculos frescos como en almacenados. Se sembraron veinte variedades para aclarar la amplitud de fechas de liberación de variedades en los EUA en Hancock, WI, en 2009 y 2010 y se evaluaron para el contenido de amilosa en el tubérculo y se hicieron mediciones del área de la superficie del gránulo de almidón, longitud, ancho, la relación largo-ancho, y la suavidad. Se encontró que estos caracteres eran estables a lo largo de los años y durante el almacenamiento. Existen diferencias significativas en el contenido de amilosa y en la morfología del gránulo de almidón entre variedades, pero no hay una distinción clara entre las variedades modernas y las clásicas. Se encontró variación genética en el contenido de amilosa y para la morfología del gránulo de almidón entre el juego de clones muestreado para este estudio. No obstante, el germoplasma con el mas alto contenido de amilosa requerirá ser identificado y utilizado en mejoramiento si se consideran los beneficios nutrimentales asociados con alta fibra y bajo índice glicémico.

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Copyright information

© Potato Association of America 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diego Fajardo
    • 1
  • Kathleen G. Haynes
    • 2
  • Shelley Jansky
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.USDA-ARS, Vegetable Crops Research UnitMadisonUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARS, Beltsville Area Research CenterBeltsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of HorticultureUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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