Population Dynamics of the Beet Leafhopper in Northeastern Oregon and Incidence of the Beet Leafhopper-Transmitted Virescence Agent Phytoplasma

Abstract

Beet leafhoppers were collected weekly on yellow sticky traps placed at 36 locations in Morrow and Umatilla Counties in northeastern Oregon in April through November 2007, 2008, and 2009. Insects were counted, collected, and a subset of the insects was tested for the presence of the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent phytoplasma, the causal agent of potato purple top disease in this region. Beet leafhoppers were present throughout the sampling period and the number of insects collected peaked in June of each year with smaller peaks in July and October. Of the 804 insects tested for phytoplasma in 2007, 2008, and 2009, 21, 18, and 22% tested positive for phytoplasma, respectively. Most of the phytoplasma-positive insects were collected from mid-June through July. Positive insects, however, were collected as late as 13 November in 2007 and 2008. These data indicate that a relatively high proportion of the beet leafhoppers in this area are harboring the phytoplasma. Therefore, the potential for development of purple top disease of potatoes from migrating beet leafhoppers in this important potato producing region is quite high and measures to control this pest throughout the growing season are probably necessary in order to reduce disease pressure.

Resumen

Se colectaron chicharritas de la remolacha semanalmente en trampas amarillas pegajosas ubicadas en 36 localidades en los Condados de Morrow y Umatilla en el noreste de Oregon desde abril hasta noviembre de 2007, 2008 y 2009. Se contaron los insectos, se colectaron y se probó un sub-juego de ellos para la presencia del fitoplasma, agente de la virescencia transmitido por la chicharrita de la remolacha, que es el agente causal de la enfermedad de la punta morada de la papa en esta región. Las chicharritas de la remolacha estuvieron presentes a lo largo del período del muestreo y el número de insectos colectados alcanzó un máximo en junio de cada año con pequeños picos en julio y octubre. De los 804 insectos probados para fitoplasma en 2007, 2008 y 2009, 21, 18 y 22% fueron positivos para el fitoplasma, respectivamente. La mayoría de los insectos positivos se colectaron desde la mitad de junio y todo julio. No obstante, se colectaron positivos hasta tan tarde como el 13 de noviembre de 2007 y 2008. Estos datos indican que una alta proporción relativa de las chicharritas de la remolacha en esta área están manteniendo al fitoplasma. De aquí que el potencial de desarrollo de la enfermedad de la punta morada de la papa proveniente de chicharritas migratorias en esta región tan importante en la producción de papa es muy alto y las medidas de control de esta plaga a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo son probablemente necesarias a fin de reducir la presión de la enfermedad.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Burkness, E.C., R.C. Venette, P.K. O’Rourke, and W.D. Hutchison. 1999. Binomial sequential sampling for management of aster leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and aster yellows phytoplasma in carrot: impact of tally threshold on the accuracy of treatment decisions. Environmental Entomology 28: 851–857.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Cook, W.C. 1967. Life history, host plants, and migrations of the beet leafhopper in the western United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1365. 122 pp.

  3. Crosslin, J.M., J.E. Munyaneza, A. Jensen, and P.B. Hamm. 2005. Association of beet leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with a clover proliferation group phytoplasma in Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 279–283.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Crosslin, J.M., G.J. Vandemark, and J.E. Munyaneza. 2006. Development of a real-time, quantitative PCR for detection of the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma in plants and beet leafhoppers. Plant Disease 90: 663–667.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Crosslin, J.M., L.L. Hamlin, J.L. Buchman, and J.E. Munyaneza. 2011. Transmission of potato purple top phytoplasma to potato tubers and daughter plants. American Journal of Potato Research 88: 339–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Davis, D.L., and W.A. Sinclair. 1998. Phytoplasma identity and disease etiology. Phytopathology 88: 1372–1376.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Deng, S., and C. Hiruki. 1991. Genetic relatedness between two nonculturable mycoplasmalike organisms revealed by nucleic acid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology 81: 1475–1479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Golino, D.A., G.N. Oldfield, and D.J. Gumpf. 1987. Transmission characteristics of the beet leafhopper transmitted virescence agent. Phytopathology 77: 954–957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Golino, D.A., G.N. Oldfield, and D.J. Gumpf. 1989. Experimental hosts of the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent. Plant Disease 73: 850–854.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Goodwin, P.H., G.S. Mahuku, H. Liu, and B.G. Xue. 1999. Monitoring phytoplasma in populations of aster leafhoppers from lettuce fields using the polymerase chain reaction. Crop Protection 18: 91–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gundersen, D.E., and I.-M. Lee. 1996. Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 35: 144–151.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Klein, M., P.G. Weintraub, M. Davidovich, L. Kuznetsova, T. Zahavi, A. Ashanova, S. Orenstein, and E. Tanne. 2001. Monitoring phytoplasma-bearing leafhoppers/planthoppers in vineyards in the Golan Heights, Israel. Journal of Applied Entomology 125: 19–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Lee, I.-M., R.E. Davis, and D.E. Gundersen-Rindal. 2000. Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annual Review of Microbiology 54: 221–255.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Lee, I.-M., K.D. Bottner, J.E. Munyaneza, G.A. Secor, and N.C. Gudmestad. 2004. Clover proliferation group (16SrVI) subgroup A (16SrVI-A) phytoplasma is a probable causal agent of potato purple top disease in Washington and Oregon. Plant Disease 88: 429.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Lee, I.-M., K.D. Bottner, J.E. Munyaneza, R.E. Davis, J.M. Crosslin, L.J. du Toit, and T. Crosby. 2006. Carrot purple leaf: a new spiroplasmal disease associated with carrots in Washington State. Plant Disease 90: 989–993.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Lorenz, K.-H., B. Schneider, U. Ahrens, and E. Seemüller. 1995. Detection of the apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA. Phytopathology 85: 771–776.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, A.S. Jensen, P.B. Hamm, P.E. Thomas, H. Pappu, and A. Schreiber. 2005. Update on the potato purple top disease in the Columbia Basin, pp. 57–70. In Proceedings of the 44th Annual Washington State Potato Conference, 1–3 February 2005, Moses Lake, WA.

  18. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, and J.E. Upton. 2006. Beet leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) transmits the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma to potatoes, beets, and weeds. Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 268–272.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, and I.-M. Lee. 2007. Phytoplasma diseases and insect vectors in potatoes of the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Bulletin of Insectology 60: 181–182.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Munyaneza, J.E., A.S. Jensen, P.B. Hamm, and J.E. Upton. 2008. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of beet leafhopper in the potato growing region of Washington and Oregon Columbia Basin and Yakima Valley. American Journal of Potato Research 85: 77–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, and J.L. Buchman. 2009. Susceptibility of different potato cultivars to purple top disease. American Journal of Potato Research 86: 499–503.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, J.L. Buchman, and V.G. Sengoda. 2010a. Susceptibility of different potato plant growth stages to purple top disease. American Journal of Potato Research 87: 60–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, J.E. Upton, and J.L. Buchman. 2010b. Incidence of the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent phytoplasma in local populations of the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus, in Washington State. Journal of Insect Science 10: 18.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Schneider, B., E. Seemüller, C.D. Smart, and B.C. Kirkpatrick. 1995. Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology. Vol. 1, ed. S. Razin and J.G. Tully, 369–380. San Diego: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  25. Schultz, T.R., and M.E. Shaw. 1991. Occurrence of the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent in red and daikon radish seed plants in Washington State. Plant Disease 75: 751.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Shaw, M.E., D.A. Golino, and B.C. Kirkpatrick. 1990. Infection of radish in Idaho by beet leafhopper transmitted virescence agent. Plant Disease 74: 252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Shaw, M.E., B.C. Kirkpatrick, and D.S. Golino. 1993. The beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent causes tomato big bud disease in California. Plant Disease 77: 290–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Smart, C.D., B. Schneider, C.L. Blomquist, L.J. Guerra, N.A. Harrison, U. Ahrens, K.-H. Lorenz, E. Seemüller, and B.C. Kirkpatrick. 1996. Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 2988–2993.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Thomas, P.E., and G.I. Mink. 1979. Beet curly top virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 210. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux/Association of Applied Biologists.

  30. Thomas, P.E., G. Reed, K. Richards, B. Kirkpatrick, and J. Crosslin. 2003. Evidence that the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent caused the 2002 epidemic of potato yellows disease in the Columbia Basin. Potato Progress III(3): 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Zhang, Y.-P., J.K. Uyemoto, and B.C. Kirkpatrick. 1998. A small-scale procedure for extracting nucleic acids from woody plants infected with various phytopathogens for PCR assay. Journal of Virological Methods 71: 45–50.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like extend our thanks to the summer students and the many growers who allowed access to their farms. Special thanks to Amanda Smith. Launa Hamlin, Mary Roster, Gwen Pentecost, and Ruben Marchosky are gratefully acknowledged for technical assistance. This research was partially funded by the Oregon Potato Commission. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the United States Department of Agriculture or the Agricultural Research Service of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. M. Crosslin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Crosslin, J.M., Rondon, S.I. & Hamm, P.B. Population Dynamics of the Beet Leafhopper in Northeastern Oregon and Incidence of the Beet Leafhopper-Transmitted Virescence Agent Phytoplasma. Am. J. Pot Res 89, 82–88 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12230-011-9223-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Plant diseases
  • Phytoplasma
  • BLTVA