The Botanical Review

, Volume 83, Issue 3, pp 303–325 | Cite as

Assessing the Relevance of Herbarium Collections as Tools for Conservation Biology

  • Neus Nualart
  • Neus Ibáñez
  • Ignasi Soriano
  • Jordi López-Pujol
Article

Abstract

Herbarium collections constitute permanent and often well-documented records of the distribution of taxa through space and time. Since their creation, their uses have dramatically expanded and with many new uses being proposed, including some for which herbaria were not initially intended for. In this paper we assess the potential of these collections on conservation biology, by providing exemplary studies that use herbarium specimens, grouped into four categories: (1) based on occurrence data, such as studies about plant extinction or introduction, or those focused on modelling their ecological niche; (2) based on the specimens themselves, such as morphological or phenological studies to evaluate the impact of climate change; (3) based in genetic data, such as phylogeographic or taxonomical studies; and (4), other applied studies.

Keywords

Biological collections Conservation Herbarium specimens Collections databases 

References

  1. Adhikari, D., S. K. Barik & K. Upadhaya. 2012. Habitat distribution modelling for reintroduction of Ilex khasiana Purk., a critically endangered tree species of northeastern India. Ecological Engineering 40: 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aedo, C., L. Medina, P. Barberá & M. Fernández-Albert. 2015. Extinctions of vascular plants in Spain. Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 478–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J., H. M. Serna-Chavez, A. R. Villalobos-Arambula, J. A. Pérez de la Rosa & N. Raes. 2015. Similar but not equivalent: Ecological niche comparison across closely-related Mexican white pines. Diversity and Distributions 21: 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amici, V., F. Geri, I. Bonini, & D. Rocchini. 2014. Ecological niche modelling with herbarium data: A framework to improve Natura 2000 habitat monitoring. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 12: 661–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreasen, K., M. Manktelow & S. G. Razafimandimbison. 2009. Successful DNA amplification of a more than 200-year-old herbarium specimen: Recovering genetic material from the Linnaean era. Taxon 58: 959–962.Google Scholar
  6. Applequist, W. L., D. J. McGlinn, M. Miller, Q. G. Long & J. S. Miller. 2007. How well do herbarium data predict the location of present populations? A test using Echinacea species in Missouri. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 1397–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baena, S., D. S. Boyd, P. Smith, J. Moat & G. M. Foody. 2016. Earth observation archives for plant conservation: 50 years monitoring of Itigi-Sumbu thicket. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 2: 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barriocanal, C. & C. Blanché. 2002. Estat de conservació i propostes de gestió per a Stachys maritima Gouan a la península Ibèrica. Orsis 17: 7–20.Google Scholar
  9. Beatty, G. E. & J. Provan. 2014. Phylogeographical analysis of two cold-tolerant plants with disjunct Lusitanian distributions does not support in situ survival during the last glaciation. Journal of Biogeography 41: 2185–2193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bebber, D. P., M. A. Carine, J. R. I. Wood, A. H. Wortley, D. J. Harris, G. T. Prance, G. Davidse, J. Paige, J. T. D. Pennington, N. K. B. Robson & R. W. Scotland. 2010. Herbaria are a major frontier for species discovery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 22169–22171.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellard, C., P. Cassey & T. M. Blackburn. 2016. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions. Biology Letters 12: 20150623.Google Scholar
  12. Benito, J. L. 2013. Relación aproximada de las plantas vasculares descritas para la flora ibero-macaronésica en 2010 y síntesis desde 1995. Boletín de la Asociación de Herbarios Ibero-Macaronésicos 14–15: 31–40.Google Scholar
  13. Bergamini, A., S. Ungricht & H. Hofmann. 2009. An elevational shift of cryophilous bryophytes in the last century – An effect of climate warming? Diversity and Distributions 15: 871–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhagwat, S. A. & K. J. Willis. 2008. Species persistence in northerly glacial refugia of Europe: A matter of chance or biogeographical traits? Journal of Biogeography 35: 464–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bi, K., T. Linderoth, D. Vanderpool, J. M. Good, R. Nielsen & C. Moritz. 2013. Unlocking the vault: Next-generation museum population genomics. Molecular Ecology 22: 6018–6032.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolòs, O. & J. Vigo. 1995. Flora dels Països Catalans, Vol. 3. Editorial Barcino, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  17. Bowles, M. L., R. F. Betz & M. M. De Mauro. 1993. Propagation of rare plants from historic seed collections: Implications for species restoration and herbarium management. Restoration Ecology 1: 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buerki, S. & W. J. Baker. 2016. Collections-based research in the genomic era. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 117: 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calinger, K. M., S. Queenborough & P. S. Curtis. 2013. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America. Ecology Letters 16: 1037–1044.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Case, M. A., K. M. Flinn, J. Jancaitis, A. Alley & A. Paxton. 2007. Declining abundance of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) documented by herbarium specimens. Biological Conservation 134: 22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity). 2010. The Strategic plan for biodiversity 2011–2020 and the Aichi biodiversity targets. Decision X/2. 18 to 29 October 2010. Nagoya.Google Scholar
  22. Chauvel, B., F. Dessaint, C. Cardinal-Legrand & F. Bretagnolle. 2006. The historical spread of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in France from herbarium records. Journal of Biogeography 33: 665–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clavaguera, A. M. 2012. Influència del clima en la fenologia de la floració de Globularia alypum. Final Degree Project, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Bellaterra.Google Scholar
  24. Clifford, H. T., R. W. Rogers & M. E. Dettman. 1990. Where now for taxonomy? Nature 346: 602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Comes, H. P. & J. W. Kadereit. 1998. The effect of quaternary climatic changes on plant distribution and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3: 432–438.Google Scholar
  26. Cota-Sánchez, J. H., K. Remarchuk & K. Ubayasena. 2006. Ready-to-use DNA extracted with a CTAB method adapted for herbarium specimens and mucilaginous plant tissue. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 24: 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crawford, P. H. C. & B. W. Hoagland. 2009. Can herbarium records be used to map alien species invasion and native species expansion over the past 100 years? Journal of Biogeography 36: 651–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cronquist, A. 1978. Once again, what is a species? Pp. 3–20. In: J. A. Romberger (ed.), Biosystematics in agriculture. Allenheld, Osmun and Co., Montclair.Google Scholar
  29. Culley, T. M. 2013. Why vouchers matter in botanical research. Applications in Plant Sciences 1: 1300076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dalton, R. 2003. Natural history collections in crisis as funding is slashed. Nature 423: 575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, P. H. & V. H. Heywood. 1963. Principles of angiosperm taxonomy. Van Nostrand, Princeton.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, C. C., C. G. Willis, B. Connolly, C. Kelly & A. M. Ellison. 2015. Herbarium records are reliable sources of phenological change driven by climate and provide novel insights into species’ phenological cueing mechanisms. American Journal of Botany 102: 1599–1609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davy, A. J. 2005. Museum specimens breathe life into plant conservation? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 285–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Castro, O. & B. Menale. 2004. PCR amplification of Michele Tenore’s historical specimens and facility to utilize an alternative approach to resolve taxonomic problems. Taxon 53: 147–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Delisle, F., C. Lavoie, M. Jean & D. Lachance. 2003. Reconstructing the spread of invasive plants: Taking into account biases associated with herbarium specimens. Journal of Biogeography 30: 1033–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DESA (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations). 2015. World population prospects: The 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Devey, D. S., F. Forest, F. Rakotonasolo, P. Ma, B. T. M. Dentinger & S. Buerki. 2013. A snapshot of extinction in action: The decline and imminent demise of the endemic Eligmocarpus Capuron (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) serves as an example of the fragility of Madagascan ecosystems. South African Journal of Botany 89: 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Drábková, L. Z. 2014. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens. Methods in Molecular Biology 1115: 69–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Droissart, V., O. J. Hardy, B. Sonké, F. Dahdouh-Guebas & T. Stévart. 2012. Subsampling herbarium collections to assess geographic diversity gradients: A case study with endemic Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae in Cameroon. Biotropica 44: 44–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Engemann, K., B. J. Enquist, B. Sandel, B. Boyle, P. M. Jørgensen, N. Morueta-Holme, R. K. Peet, C. Violle & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. Limited sampling hampers “big data” estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Evolution 5: 807–820.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Enquist, B. J., Condit R., Peet R. K., Schildhauer M. & Thiers B. M. 2009. The Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN): Cyberinfrastructure for an integrated botanical information network to investigate the ecological impacts of global climate change on plant biodiversity. The iPlant Collaborative. http://www.iplantcollaborative.org/sites/default/files/BIEN_White_Paper.pdf, accessed September 5 2016.
  42. Everill, P. H., R. B. Primack, E. R. Ellwood & E. K. Melaas. 2014. Determining past leaf-out times of New England’s deciduous forests from herbarium specimens. American Journal of Botany 101: 1293–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Falk, D. A. & K. E. Holsinger. 1991. Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Feeley, K. J. 2012. Distributional migrations, expansions, and contractions of tropical plant species as revealed in dated herbarium records. Global Change Biology 18: 1335–1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fernández, M. & H. Hamilton. 2015. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study. PLoS ONE 10: e0119891.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flannery, M. C. 2012. Flatter than a pancake: Why scanning herbarium sheets shouldn’t make them disappear. Spontaneous Generations 6: 225–232.Google Scholar
  47. Frankham, R. 2010. Challenges and opportunities of genetic approaches to biological conservation. Biological Conservation 143: 1919–1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Franklin, J. 2013. Species distribution models in conservation biogeography: Developments and challenges. Diversity and Distributions 19: 1217–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fuentes, N., E. Ugarte, I. Kühn & S. Klotz. 2008. Alien plants in Chile: Inferring invasion periods from herbarium records. Biological Invasions 10: 649–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Funk, V. A. 2004. 100 uses for a herbarium (well at least 72). Plant Science Bulletin 49: 94–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Funk, V. A. 2014. The erosion of collections-based science: alarming trend or coincidence? The Plant Press 17: 13–14.Google Scholar
  52. Funk, V. A., P. C. Hoch, L. A. Prather & W. L. Wagner. 2005. The importance of vouchers. Taxon 54: 127–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gavin, D. G., M. C. Fitzpatrick, P. F. Gugger, K. D. Heath, F. Rodríguez-Sánchez, S. Z. Dobrowski, A. Hampe, F. S. Hu, M. B. Ashcroft, P. J. Bartlein, J. L. Blois, B. C. Carstens, E. B. Davis, G. de Lafontaine, M. E. Edwards, M. Fernandez, P. D. Henne, E. M. Herring, Z. A. Holden, W. Kong, J. Liu, D. Magri, N. J. Matzke, M. S. McGlone, F. Saltré, A. L. Stigall, Y.-H. E. Tsai & J. W. Williams. 2014. Climate refugia: joint inference from fossil records, species distribution models and phylogeography. New Phytologist 204: 37–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Geri, F., N. La Porta, F. Zottele & M. Ciolli. 2016. Mapping historical data: Recovering a forgotten floristic and vegetation database for biodiversity monitoring. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 5: 100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Giljohann, K. M., C. E. Hauser, N. S. G. Williams & J. L. Moore. 2011. Optimizing invasive species control across space: Willow invasion management in the Australian Alps. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 1286–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Godefroid, S., A. van de Vyver, P. Stoffelen, E. Robbrecht & T. Vanderborght. 2011. Testing the viability of seeds from old herbarium specimens for conservation purposes. Taxon 60: 565–569.Google Scholar
  57. González, V., R. del Hoyo & A. Valverde. 2006. Valoració de les poblacions d’Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link (Compositae) al delta del Llobregat i revisió de la distribució de l’espècie a Catalunya. Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d’Història Natural 74: 29–36.Google Scholar
  58. González-Moreno, P., J. M. Diez, I. Ibáñez, X. Font & M. Vilà. 2014. Plant invasions are context-dependent: Multiscale effects of climate, human activity and habitat. Diversity and Distributions 20: 720–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Graham, C. H., S. Ferrier, F. Huettman, C. Moritz & A. T. Peterson. 2004. New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grass, A., K. Tremetsberger, R. Hössinger & K. Bernhardt. 2014. Change of species and habitat diversity in the Pannonian region of eastern Lower Austria over 170 years: Using herbarium records as a witness. Natural Resources 5: 583–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greve, M., A. M. Lykke, C. W. Fagg, R. E. Gereau, G. P. Lewis, R. Marchant, A. R. Marshall, J. Ndayishimiye, J. Bogaert & J.-C. Svenning. 2016. Realising the potential of herbarium records for conservation biology. South African Journal of Botany 105: 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gropp, R. E. 2003. Are university natural science collections going extinct? BioScience 53: 550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Guerin, G. R. 2013. The value of herbaria to diverse collections-based research. Australasian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 157: 43–44.Google Scholar
  64. Guerin, G. R., H. Wen & A. J. Lowe. 2012. Leaf morphology shift linked to climate change. Biology Letters 8: 882–886.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Guisan, A., R. Tingley, J. B. Baumgartner, I. Naujokaitis-Lewis, P. R. Sutcliffe, A. I. T. Tulloch, T. J. Regan, L. Brotons, E. McDonald-Madden, C. Mantyka-Pringle, T. G. Martin, J. R. Rhodes, R. Maggini, S. A. Setterfield, J. Elith, M. W. Schwartz, B. A. Wintle, O. Broennimann, M. Austin, S. Ferrier, M. R. Kearney, H. P. Possingham & Y. M. Buckley. 2013. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions. Ecology Letters 16: 1424–1435.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haripersaud, P. P. 2009. Collecting biodiversity. PhD thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  67. Harrison, N. & C. A. Kidner. 2011. Next-generation sequencing and systematics: What can a billion base pairs of DNA sequence data do for you? Taxon 60: 1552–1566.Google Scholar
  68. Hassemer, G., R. De Giovanni & R. Trevisan. 2016. The use of potential distribution models in the study of the distribution and conservation status of plants: The case of Plantago L. (Plantaginaceae) in Brazil. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 143: 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hernández, H. M. & M. Navarro. 2007. A new method to estimate areas of occupancy using herbarium data. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 2457–2470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Heywood, V. H. 1983. The mythology of taxonomy. Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 44: 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Holland, A. 2014. How will the changing uses of herbarium collections affect their future? Australasian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 160: 5–7.Google Scholar
  72. Hu, F. S., A. Hampe & R. J. Petit. 2009. Paleoecology meets genetics: deciphering past vegetational dynamics. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Huang, P. & B. A. Schaal. 2012. Association between the geographic distribution during the last glacial maximum of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon (Poaceae), and its current genetic variation. American Journal of Botany 99: 1866–1874.Google Scholar
  74. Ibáñez, N. 2006. Estudis sobre cinc herbaris històrics de l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona. PhD thesis, University of Barcelona, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  75. Ibáñez, N., I. Soriano & J. M. Montserrat. 2004. Cultivated plants in the Salvador herbarium (17–18th century). 2nd world Botanic gardens congress. Barcelona, April 17–22 2004.Google Scholar
  76. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland and Cambridge.Google Scholar
  77. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). 2010. Guidelines for application of the IUCN red list criteria at regional levels: Version 4.0. IUCN Species Survival Comission. http://s3.amazonaws.com/iucnredlist-newcms/staging/public/attachments/3154/reg_guidelines_en.pdf, accessed 7 September 2016.
  78. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf, accessed 7 September 2016.
  79. Kricsfalusy, V. V. & N. Trevisan. 2014. Prioritizing regionally rare plant species for conservation using herbarium data. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 39–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krupnick, G. A., W. J. Kress & W. L. Wagner. 2009. Achieving target 2 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: building a preliminary assessment of vascular plant species using data from herbarium specimens. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 1459–1474.Google Scholar
  81. Küper, W., J. H. Sommer, J. C. Lovett & W. Barthlott. 2006. Deficiency in African plant distribution data – Missing pieces of the puzzle. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 355–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Landrum, L. R. & D. Lafferty. 2015. PROXIMITY and CORRELATION: Two new computer programs for mining phytosociological information held in herbarium databases using central Arizona as a test case. Taxon 64: 998–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lavoie, C. 2013. Biological collections in an ever changing world: Herbaria as tools for biogeographical and environmental studies. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 15: 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Law, W. & J. Salick. 2005. Human-induced dwarfing of Himalayan snow lotus, Saussurea laniceps (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102: 10218–10220.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Leger, E. A. 2013. Annual plants change in size over a century of observations. Global Change Biology 19: 2229–2239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Li, Z., N. Wu, X. Gao, Y. Wu & K. P. Oli. 2013. Species-level phenological responses to ‘global warming’ as evidenced by herbarium collections in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lienert, J., M. Fischer & M. Diemer. 2002. Local extinctions of the wetland specialist Swertia perennis L. (Gentianaceae) in Switzerland: A revisitation study based on herbarium records. Biological Conservation 103: 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lister, A. M. & CCRG (Climate Change Research Group). 2011. Natural history collections as sources of long-term datasets. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 153–154.Google Scholar
  89. López-Alvarado, J., L. Sáez, R. Filigheddu, M. Guardiola & A. Susanna. 2012. Centaurea tripontina (Compositae), a new species from the Pre-Pyrenean mountains, Spain. Plant Biosystems 146: 273–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. López-Pujol, J., D. Guillot, P. Nájera, N. Nualart & P. Van der Meer. 2016a. Primera cita del endemismo mexicano Agave difformis A. Berger (Agavaceae) fuera de su área de distribución nativa. Acta Botanica Mexicana 115: 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. López-Pujol, J., S. López-Vinyallonga, A. Susanna, K. Ertuğrul, T. Uysal, O. Tugay, A. Guetat & N. Garcia-Jacas. 2016b. Speciation and genetic diversity in Centaurea subsect. Phalolepis in Anatolia. Scientific Reports 6: 37818.Google Scholar
  92. López-Pujol, J., R. Orellana, M. Bosch, J. Simon & C. Blanché. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on allozyme diversity and conservation status of the coastal sand dunes plant Stachys maritima (Lamiaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Biology 5: 504–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. López-Pujol, J., F.-M. Zhang, H.-Q. Sun, T.-S. Ying & S. Ge. 2011. Mountains of Southern China as “plant museums” and “plant cradles”: Evolutionary and conservation insights. Mountain Research and Development 31: 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lulekal, E., Z. Asfaw, E. Kelbessa & P. Van Damme. 2012. Linking ethnobotany, herbaria and flora to conservation: the case of four Angiosperm families at the National Herbarium of Ethiopia. Journal of East African Natural History 101: 99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mace, G. M., J. L. Gittleman & A. Purvis. 2003. Preserving the tree of life. Science 300: 1707–1709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Magrini, S. 2011. Herbaria as useful spore banks for integrated conservation strategies of pteridophytic diversity. Plant Biosystems 145: 635–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Marcer, A., L. Sáez, R. Molowny-Horas, X. Pons & J. Pino. 2013. Using species distribution modelling to disentangle realised versus potential distributions for rare species conservation. Biological Conservation 166: 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McCune, J. L. 2016. Species distribution models predict rare species occurrences despite significant effects of landscape context. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 1871–1879.Google Scholar
  99. McDade, L. A. 1995. Species Concepts and Problems in Practice: Insight from Botanical Monographs. Systematic Botany 20: 606–622.Google Scholar
  100. McGraw, J. B. 2001. Evidence for decline in stature of American ginseng plants from herbarium specimens. Biological Conservation 98: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Médail, F. & K. Diadema. 2009. Glacial refugia influence plant diversity patterns in the Mediterranean Basin. Journal of Biogeography 36: 1333–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Meredith, A. L. 1996. Roles of natural history collections. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 83: 536–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Merow, C., J. M. Allen, M. E. Aiello-Lammens & J. A. Silander Jr. 2016. Improving niche and range estimates with Maxent and point process models by integrating spatially explicit information. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 1022–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Miller, J. S., H. A. Porter-Morgan, H. Stevens, B. Boom, G. A. Krupnick, P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, J. Fleming & M. Gensler. 2012. Addressing target two of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation by rapidly identifying plants at risk. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 1877–1887.Google Scholar
  105. Miller, J. S., G. A. Krupnick, H. Stevens, H. Porter-Morgan, B. Boom, P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, J. Ackerman, D. Kolterman, E. Santiago, C. Torres & J. Velez. 2013. Toward Target 2 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: An expert analysis of the Puerto Rican flora to validate new streamlined methods for assessing conservation status. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 99: 199–205.Google Scholar
  106. Moazzeni, H., M. Assadi, G. Zare, M. Mirtadzadini & I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2016. Taxonomic novelties in Erysimum for the Flora of Iran: E. polatschekii, a new alpine endemic, and E. scabrum, a new record. Phytotaxa 269: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Moerman, D. E. & G. F. Estabrook. 2006. The botanist effect: counties with maximal species richness tend to be home to universities and botanists. Journal of Biogeography 33: 1969–1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Montes-Moreno, N., N. Garcia-Jacas, C. Benedí & L. Sáez. 2013. Evaluation of the taxonomic status of the genus Aliella (Compositae, Gnaphalieae): a recircumscription of the genus Phagnalon. Phytotaxa 148: 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nachman, M. W. 2013. Genomics and museum specimens. Molecular Ecology 22: 5966–5968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Namoff, S., C. E. Husby, J. Francisco-Ortega, L. R. Noblick, C. E. Lewis & M. P. Griffith. 2010. How well does a botanical garden collection of a rare palm capture the genetic variation in a wild population? Biological Conservation 143: 1110–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nesbitt, M. 2014. Use of herbarium specimens in ethnobotany. Pp. 313–328. In: Salick, J., K. Konchar & M. Nesbitt (eds.), Curating biocultural collections: a handbook. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  112. Nualart, N., N. Montes-Moreno, L. Gavioli & N. Ibáñez. 2012. L’herbari de l'Institut Botànic de Barcelona com una eina per la conservació dels tàxons endèmics i amenaçats de Catalunya. Collectanea Botanica 31: 81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Parmesan, C. & G. Yohe. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Peñuelas J. & R. Matamala. 1990. Changes in N and S leaf content, stomatal density and specific leaf area of 14 plant species during the last three centuries of CO2 increase. Journal of Experimental Botany 41: 1119–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Peterson, A. T. & J. Soberón. 2012. Integrating fundamental concepts of ecology, biogeography, and sampling into effective ecological niche modeling and species distribution modeling. Plant Biosystems 146: 789–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ponder, W. F., G. A. Carter, P. Flemons & R. R. Chapman. 2001. Evaluation of museum collection data for use in biodiversity assessment. Conservation Biology 15: 648–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Primack, D., C. Imbres, R. B. Primack, A. J. Miller-Rushing & P. Del Tredici. 2004. Herbarium specimens demonstrate earlier flowering times in response to warming in Boston. American Journal of Botany 91: 1260–1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pyke, G. H. & P. R. Ehrlich. 2010. Biological collections and ecological/environmental research: A review, some observations and a look to the future. Biological Reviews 85: 247–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rands, M. R. W., W. M. Adams, L. Bennun, S. H. M. Butchart, A. Clements, D. Coomes, A. Entwistle, I. Hodge, V. Kapos, J. P. W. Scharlemann, W. J. Sutherland & B. Vira . 2010. Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond 2010. Science 329: 1298–1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Raven, P. H. 2011. Plant conservation in the future: new challenges, new opportunities. Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 1–9.Google Scholar
  121. RBG Kew (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). 2016. The state of the world’s plants report – 2016. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  122. Reina-Rodríguez, G. A., J. E. Rubiano, F. A. Castro Llanos & J. T. Otero. 2016. Spatial distribution of dry forest orchids in the Cauca River Valley and Dagua Canyon: Towards a conservation strategy to climate change. Journal for Nature Conservation 30: 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rivers, M. C., S. P. Bachman, T. R. Meagher, E. N. Lughadha & N. A. Brummitt. 2010. Subpopulations, locations and fragmentation: Applying IUCN red list criteria to herbarium specimen data. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 2071–2085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rivers, M. C., L. Taylor, N. A. Brummitt, T. R. Meagher, D. L. Roberts & E. N. Lughadha. 2011. How many herbarium specimens are needed to detect threatened species? Biological Conservation 144: 2541–2547.Google Scholar
  125. Robbirt, K. M., A. J. Davy, M. J. Hutchings & D. L. Roberts. 2011. Validation of biological collections as a source of phenological data for use in climate change studies: A case study with the orchid Ophrys sphegodes. Journal of Ecology 99: 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Roberts, D. L., L. Taylor & L. N. Joppa. 2016. Threatened or Data Deficient: assessing the conservation status of poorly known species. Diversity and Distributions 22: 558–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sáez, L., P. Aymerich & C. Blanché. 2010. Llibre vermell de les plantes vasculars endèmiques i amenaçades de Catalunya. Argania Editio, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  128. Sántiz, E., C. Lorenzo, A. Carrillo-Reyes, D. Navarrete & G. Islebe. 2016. Effect of climate change on the distribution of a critically threatened species. Therya 7: 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sanz, M., E. D. Dana & E. Sobrino. 2004. Atlas de las plantas alóctonas invasoras en España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid.Google Scholar
  130. Schaffer, H. B., R. N. Fisher & C. Davidson. 1998. The role of natural history collections in documenting species declines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schatz, G. E. 2002. Taxonomy and herbaria in service of plant conservation: Lessons from Madagascar’s endemic families. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schmidt-Lebuhn A. N., N. J. Knerr & M. Kessler. 2013. Non-geographic collecting biases in herbarium specimens of Australian daisies (Asteraceae). Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 905–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Seregin, A. P. 2016. Making the Russian flora visible: fast digitisation of the Moscow University herbarium (MW) in 2015. Taxon 65: 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Smith, V. S. & V. Blagoderov. 2012. Bringing collections out of the dark. ZooKeys 209: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stehlik, I., J. P. Caspersen, L. Wirth & R. Holderegger. 2007. Floral free fall in the Swiss lowlands: Environmental determinants of local plant extinction in a peri-urban landscape. Journal of Ecology 95: 734–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stropp, J., R. J. Ladle, A. C. M. Malhado, J. Hortal, J. Gaffuri, W. H. Temperley, J. O. Skøien & P. Mayaux. 2016. Mapping ignorance: 300 years of knowledge of flowering plants in Africa. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 1085–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Suarez, A. V. & N. D. Tsutsui. 2004. The value of museum collections for research and society. BioScience 54: 66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tang, C. Q., Y-F. Dong, S. Herrando-Moraira, T. Matsui, H. Ohashi, L.-Y. He, K. Nakao, N. Tanaka, M. Tomita, X.-S. Li, H.-Z. Yan, M.-C. Peng, J. Hu, R.-H. Yang, W.-J. Li, K. Yan, X. Hou, Z.-Y. Zhang & J. López-Pujol. 2017. Potential effects of climate change on geographic distribution of the Tertiary relict tree species Davidia involucrata in China. Scientific Reports 7: 43822.Google Scholar
  139. Taylor, J. W. & E. C. Swann. 1994. DNA from herbarium specimens. Pp. 167–181. In: Herrmann, B. & S. Hummel (eds.), Ancient DNA. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  140. Tererai, F. & A. R. Wood. 2014. On the present and potential distribution of Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 95: 152–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Thiers, B. 2016. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/, accessed 31 August 2016.
  142. VHPRSK (Virtual Herbarium of Plants at Risk in Saskatchewan). 2010. W. P. Fraser Herbarium, University of Saskatchewan. http://www.usask.ca/biology/rareplants_sk/root/htm/en/researcher/2_list.php, accessed 1 September 2016.
  143. Vilà, M. & I. Ibáñez. 2011. Plant invasions in the landscape. Landscape Ecology 26: 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Vroh, B. T. A., C. Y. A. Yao, K. B. Kpangui, Z. B. G. Bi, D. Kouamé, K. J. Koffi, B. J. C. Koffi & K. E. N’Guessan. 2016. Comparing suitable habitat models to predict rare and endemic plant species distributions: what are the limits of the niche of cola lorougnonis (Malvaceae) in Cote d’Ivoire? Environment and Natural Resources Research 6(3): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wang, Z.Q., D. Guillot, M. X. Ren & J. López-Pujol. 2016a. Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) as invasive aliens in China – new records, and actual and potential distribution. Nordic Journal of Botany 34: 349–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wang, C.-J., J.-Z. Wan, Z.-X. Zhang & G.-M. Zhang. 2016b. Identifying appropriate protected areas for endangered fern species under climate change. SpringerPlus 5: 904.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wen, J., S. M. Ickert-Bond, M. S. Appelhans, L. J. Dorr & V. A. Funk. 2015. Collections-based systematics: Opportunities and outlook for 2050. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53: 477–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Williams, J. N., C. Seo, J. Thorne, J. K. Nelson, S. Erwin, J. M. O’Brien & M. W. Schwartz. 2009. Using species distribution models to predict new occurrences for rare plants. Diversity and Distributions 15: 565–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Winter, M. V. Devictor & O. Schweiger. 2013. Phylogenetic diversity and nature conservation: where are we? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wolf, A., N. B. Zimmerman, W. R. L. Anderegg, P. E. Busby & J. Christensen. 2016. Altitudinal shifts of the native and introduced flora of California in the context of 20th-century warming. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 418–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Yang, W., K. Ma & H. Kreft. 2013. Geographical sampling bias in a large distributional database and its effects on species richness–environment models. Journal of Biogeography, 40: 1415–1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Yang, W., K. Ma & H. Kreft. 2014. Environmental and socio-economic factors shaping the geography of floristic collections in China. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 1284–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zedane, L., C. Hong-Wa, J. Murienne, C. Jeziorski, B. G. Baldwin & G. Besnard. 2016. Museomics illuminate the history of an extinct, paleoendemic plant lineage (Hesperelaea, Oleaceae) known from an 1875 collection from Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 117: 44–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhang, Z., J. S. He, J. Li & Z. Tang. 2015. Distribution and conservation of threatened plants in China. Biological Conservation 192: 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zhang, M.-G., J. W. F. Slik & K.-P. Ma. 2016. Priority areas for the conservation of perennial plants in China. Biological Conservation (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neus Nualart
    • 1
  • Neus Ibáñez
    • 1
  • Ignasi Soriano
    • 2
  • Jordi López-Pujol
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut Botànic de Barcelona (IBB-CSIC-ICUB)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències AmbientalsUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations