Table 10 Medicinal palm uses documented in the bibliography and fieldwork in the tropical rainforests of northwestern South America, broken down by ecoregion, country, and human groups

From: Patterns of Medicinal Use of Palms Across Northwestern South America

Scientific name Use subcategories Ailments and diseases Palm parts Countries Ecoregions Human groups Referencesa Fieldwork localitiesb
Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart. Digestive system Gallbladder Fr B Am M   12
Hepatitis Rt B Am Ni 89  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr B Am M   12
Respiratory system Cold Rt B Am I 101  
Cough Fr B Am Ni 60  
Sensory system Cataracts Fr B Am Ni 60  
Aiphanes horrida (Jacq.) Burret Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Sp B An I   19
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Rt P An I   18
Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret Blood and cardiovascular system Blood purification Ph E Am I   4
Dental health Toothache Ph E Am I   4
Digestive system Colic Rt E Am I 34  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Ph E Am I 18, 77  
Headache Rt E Am I 77  
Shivers Rt E Am I 77  
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt E Am I 33  
Respiratory system Cold Ph, Rt E Am I 77  
Cough Ph, Rt, Sd E Am I 77, 88  
Flu Rt, Sd E Am I 88  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp E Am I   4
Ammandra decasperma O.F. Cook Digestive system Diarrhea Sd E Am I 77  
Intestinal pain Sd E Am I 77  
Asterogyne martiana (H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. ex Drude Not specified at all Unspecified Fr C Ch A   21
Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey. General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr B Am I, M   12, 13
Infections and infestations Amoebas Ph, Rt, Sd B, C Am I 68 1, 13
Unspecified Ph C Am I 68  
Respiratory system Cold Fr B Am I, M   12, 13
Cough Lf C Am I   1
Pneumonia Fr, Sd B, C Am I, Ni 107, 117  
Sensory system Eye inflammation Sd C Am I   2
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Fr, Sp B Am I, M   12, 13
Extraction of spines Sp B Am I   13
Astrocaryum chambira Burret Dental health Dental floss Sl C Am I   1
Digestive system Diarrhea Sd C Am I   1, 2
Hepatitis Fr, Ph P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Ph C Am I   2
Infections and infestations Malaria Fr P Am Ni 14  
Measles Sd E Am I 26  
Unspecified Rt P Am Ni 14  
Yellow Fever Rt P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Muscular-skeletal system Rheumatism and Arthritis Lf P Am Ni 83  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ns C Am I, M 24, 25, 55  
Poisonings Snake bit antidote Ph, Sd C, P Am I 106 8
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Galactogogue Sd P Am I   8
Respiratory system Flu Ph P Am I 38  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp C, E Am I 77 1
Astrocaryum ciliatum F. Kahn & B. Millán Digestive system Purgative Pt C Am I   1
Poisonings Snake bit antidote Ph C Am I 72, 106 1
Respiratory system Flu Pt C Am I   1
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp C Am I   1
Astrocaryum ferrugineum F. Kahn & B. Millán Infections and infestations Amoebas Pt C Am I 49, 106  
Astrocaryum gratum F. Kahn & B. Millán Cultural diseases and disorders Witchcraft Sp B Am I 19  
Muscular-skeletal system Back pain Rt B Am I 19  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp B Am I 19  
Astrocaryum gynacanthum Mart. Respiratory system Cold Lf C Am I 117  
Pneumonia Sd C Am I   1
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp C Am I   1
Astrocaryum huaimi Mart. Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Sp P Am M   5
Urinary system Prostate Sl P Am M   6
Astrocaryum huicungo Dammer ex Burret Digestive system Hepatitis Rt P An I   18
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Galactogogue Sd P Am I   8
Astrocaryum jauari Mart. Digestive system Hepatitis Ph P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp C, E Am I   1, 4
Astrocaryum murumuru Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Fr B An I   19
Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Sp B An I   19
Witchcraft Sp B Am I 78  
Dental health Toothache Sp B Am I 78  
Digestive system Hepatitis Ph, Rt P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100, 120  
Stomach pain Sd B An I   19
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr, Rt, St B, P Am M, Ni 14 12
Infections and infestations Amoebas Rt B Am I   13
Malaria Ph, Rt, St P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Muscular-skeletal system Back pain Ph P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ns P Am M 96  
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Ns P Am Ni 118  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Callus Fr B Am I 3  
Extraction of spines Sp B Am, An I 78 13, 19
Astrocaryum sciophilum (Miq.) Pulle Dental health Purgative Lf C Am I 68  
Poisonings Snake bit antidote Lf C Am I 71  
Astrocaryum standleyanum L.H. Bailey Cultural diseases and disorders Psychosomatic Sp C Ch I 49  
Respiratory system Asthma Sp E Ch I   24
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Fr C Ch I   22
Astrocaryum urostachys Burret Cultural diseases and disorders Bad Air Sp E Am, An I 9, 13  
Respiratory system Cold Lf, St E Am I 77  
Attalea allenii H.E. Moore Cultural diseases and disorders Evil eye Sd C Ch I   22
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Lf, Sl C Ch A   21
Attalea bassleriana (Burret) Zona Poisonings Antidote Sd C Am I 68  
Attalea butyracea (Mutis ex L. f.) Wess. Boer Blood and cardiovascular system Goiter Ns C Ch Ni 39  
Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Sd B Am I, M   12, 13, 14
Digestive system Diarrhea Br, Sd B, P Am I 5  
Hepatitis Rt P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Unspecified Rt P Am M 96  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Rt B Am M   12
Fever Sd B Am M   12
Headache Sd B Am I   13
Infections and infestations Amoebas Sd B Am I   11, 13, 14
Itch Rt B Am I   14
Muscular-skeletal system Rheumatism and Arthritis Sd B Am M   12
Not specified at all Unspecified Sd C Am Ni 102  
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility St C Ch Ni 16  
Respiratory system Bronchitis Sd B, C Am, Ch Ni 16, 60  
Cold Sd B, P Am I   10, 14
Cough Sd B Am Ni 60  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Burns Sd P Am I   10
Attalea colenda (O.F. Cook) Balslev & A.J. Hend. Digestive system Purgative Sd E Ch I 32  
Respiratory system Asthma Fr E Ch I   24
Attalea insignis (Mart.) Drude Not specified at all Unspecified Fr P Am Ni 14  
Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Rt B Am I   13
Cultural diseases and disorders Angry women Rt C Am I 68  
Digestive system Diarrhea Fr, Ph, St P Am Ni 14  
Hepatitis Fr P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Purgative Ph C Am I   1
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Lack of appetite Fr C Am I 68  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr, Ph, St P Am Ni 14  
Poisonings Antidote Rt C Am I 68  
Antidote for poisonous plants Ph C Am I 116  
Snake bit antidote Lf C Am I   1
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Galactogogue St C Am I   1
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Fr C Am I   2
Respiratory system Cold Fr E Am I 18  
Cough Fr B Am M   12
Pneumonia Fr C Am I   1
Respiratory infections Fr C Am I 49  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Rash Sd C Am I 84  
Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Blood and cardiovascular system
Cultural diseases and disorders
Anemia Lf B Am I 3, 19, 122, 123  
Evil eye Rt B Am I 3  
Freight Sd B Am I, M   12, 14
Digestive system Diarrhea Br, Sd B Am I 3, 19, 123  
Gallbladder Rt, Sd B Am M, Ni 97 12
Hepatitis Rt, Sd, St P Am I 120  
Inguinal Hernia Rt B An I   19
Intestinal pain Rt B Am I 19  
Purgative Rt, Sd P An I   18
Unspecified Sd B Am I 17  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Lf B Am I, M, Ni 19, 91, 97, 122 12, 14
Headache Fr, Rt, Sd B Am I 19  
Unspecified Sd P Am I, M 100  
Infections and infestations Amoebas Sd B Am I, M, Ni 97, 122 12, 13, 14
Anthelmintic Rt, St B Am, An I, Ni 3, 7, 78, 90 19
Itch Rt B Am I   14
Lice Sd P Am I   10
Smallpox Sd B Am I 123  
Unspecified Sd B Am I 123  
Metabolic System and nutrition Vitamin Sd B Am I, Ni 19, 97  
Muscular-skeletal system Back pain Rt, St B Am I 19, 78, 123  
Bone pain Rt, Sd B An I   19
Fractures Rt B An I   20
Hematoma Rt B Am I 78  
Hernia Sd B An I 87  
Hip pain Rt B Am I 123  
Muscular pain Sd B Am Ni 90  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr B, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 60, 61, 89 18
Other Alcoholism Fr, Lf, Rt, Sd, Ns B Am I 78  
Hair loss Fl B Am Ni 89, 91  
Poisonings Snake bit antidote Fr B, P Am I, M   8, 12
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Childbirth problems Pt, Ph B Am, An I 87, 122  
Postpartum Fr, Rt B An I   19
Reproductive system and sexual health Contraceptive Rt B Am I 123  
Uterus infections Ns B Am, An I, Ni 97, 98 19
Respiratory system Bronchitis Rt, St B Am I 19  
Cold Sd B, P Am, An I, M 98, 101 10, 12, 13, 14 19
Cough Rt, Sd B Am, An I 19, 87, 123  
Flu Sd B Am I 123  
Pneumonia Sd B Am, An I, Ni 19, 87, 90  
Respiratory infections Fr, Sd B Am Ni 99  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Fr, Sd B Am, An I 3, 19, 62, 78, 87  
Burns Rt, Sd B Am, An I 19 19
Dandruff Sd B Am Ni 89, 91  
Psoriasis Fr B Am I, M 3, 19, 62, 101 12, 14
Skin infections Sd B Am I 19  
Skin spots Sd B, P Am I 120, 122  
Swellings Fr, Sd B Am I 19, 78  
Wounds Sd B Am, An I 19, 87  
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Fr, Sd B Am, An I, M   12, 14, 19
Prostate Rt, Sd B An I 87  
Attalea plowmanii (Glassman) Zona Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Childbirth problems Rt C Am I 106  
Attalea speciosa Mart. Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Fr B Am M   12
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Sd B Am M   12
Fever Sd B Am M, Ni 99 12
Infections and infestations Amoebas Sd B Am I   13
Muscular-skeletal system Rheumatism and Arthritis Rt B Am M   12
Not specified at all Unspecified Sd B Am I, Ni 89, 92, 98  
Respiratory system Pneumonia Fr, Sd B Am Ni 107  
Respiratory infections Sd B Am Ni 99  
Bactris acanthocarpa Mart. Digestive system Unspecified Sd B Am I 17  
Infections and infestations Malaria Fr P Am Ni 14  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Rt B Am I   1, 13
Bactris barronis L.H. Bailey Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp C Ch I   22
Bactris bidentula Spruce Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sp C Am I   1
Bactris brongniartii Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Sp P Am I   8
Sensory system Earache Ph C, P Am I 84 8
Bactris coloradonis L.H. Bailey Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Sl, Ph C Ch I   22
Bactris concinna Mart. Digestive system Purgative Fr C Am I 46  
Infections and infestations Malaria Rt C Am I 46  
Respiratory system Cold Rt E Am I 77  
Cough Rt E Am I 77  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Rt C Am I   1
Urinary system Urinary problems Sp C Am I 46  
Bactris corossilla H. Karst. Blood and cardiovascular system Blood purification Rt E Am I   4
Digestive system Diarrhea Ph E Am I 28  
Intestinal pain Ph E Am I 28  
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Ph E Am I 28  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ph E Am I 10  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Ns C Am I   1
Bactris gasipaes Kunth Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Sp B An I   19
Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Ph B, P An I, M 36 20
Psychosomatic Sp E Am I 65  
Witchcraft Ph E Ch I   24
Digestive system Diarrhea Sp E Am I 65, 79  
Gallbladder Rt, Ns B Am M   12
Hepatitis Fr C, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 100 2, 18
Inguinal Hernia Rt B, P Am, An I, M   19
Intestinal pain Rt P Am Ni 14  
Stomach pain Rt B, C, E Am, An, Ch I   2, 20, 24
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Ph, Rt, Sd B, E Am, An I, M 64 12, 14, 19
Fever Fr, Rt, Ns B Am I, M 78 12
Headache Fr B Am M   12
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Fr P Am I 76  
Chickenpox Ns C Am I   1
Malaria Ph C, P Am I, M, Ni 14 2, 7, 10
Tuberculosis Rt B Am I   20
Unspecified Fr E Am Ni 21  
Yellow Fever Ph C Am I   2
Metabolic System and nutrition Vitamin Rt E Ch I   24
Muscular-skeletal system Muscular pain Rt E Am, Ch I   4, 24
Nervous system and mental health Epilepsy Fr, Rt E, P Am I 111, 124  
Not specified at all Unspecified Lf, Rt, Sp B, E, P Am, An I, M, Ni 10, 30, 62, 96, 99, 113, 126 8
Other Cancer Fr, Lf, Sl, Ph, Ns C Ch A   21
Poisonings Snakebite antidote Sd P Am I   8
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Abortive Ph C, P Am, Ch I, Ni 14 22
Antiabortive Rt C, P Am, Ch A, M 69, 74 6
Childbirth problems Rt C, P Am I, M 56 2, 5, 7
Galactogogue Rt B, E, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 57, 65 8, 18
Mastitis Fr, Ph, Rt, Ns P Am I   18
Postpartum Rt B An I   19
Reproductive system and sexual health Contraceptive Rt E, P Am I 4, 65  
Fertility Rt C, P Am, An, Ch A, I, M, Ni 14, 100, 104 18, 21
Gonorrhea Fr, Rt, Ns P An I   10
Menstrual problems Rt C An I 56, 84, 121  
Uterus infections Rt B, P Ch I   18, 19
Respiratory system Cold Rt B, P Am, An I, M   6, 20
Cough Fr, Rt B Am I 123  
Pneumonia Fr P Am M   7
Sensory system Earache Rt E Am, An, Ch I, Ni 21 4, 24
Eye inflammation Fr, Lf, Ph, Rt E Ch I   24
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Fr C, E Am, Ch I 77 1, 22
Psoriasis Sp B An I   19
Swellings Fr B Am I 78  
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Fr P Am, An I, M 36 5
Urinary infections Rt P Am I 120  
Urinary problems Rt B Am I 109  
Veterinary Unspecified Rt P Am Ni 14  
Bactris hirta Mart. Sensory system Earache Rt P Am I   8
Bactris macroacantha Mart. Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Sl C Am I   1
Bactris major Jacq. Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Sp B An I   19
Digestive system Diarrhea Sp B An I   19
Purgative Sd C Am Ni 50  
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Fr C Am Ni 50  
Poisonings Antidote Fr C Am Ni 50  
Bactris maraja Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Blood purification Fr E Am I   4
Digestive system Purgative Ph C Am I 46  
Infections and infestations Malaria Rt C Am I 46  
Respiratory system Cough Rt E Am I 77  
Throat ache Rt E Am I 77  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Rt C Am, Ch I   1, 22
Urinary system Urinary problems Sp C Am I 46  
Bactris riparia Mart. Reproductive system and sexual health Menstrual problems Rt P Am Ni 14  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Extraction of spines Rt C Am I   1
Bactris setulosa H. Karst. Not specified at all Unspecified Sp E Am I 30  
Bactris simplicifrons Mart. General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr P Am Ni 14  
Nervous system and mental health Soporific Fr P Am I 52  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ns E Am I 10  
Ceroxylon parvum Galeano Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Ns B An I   20
Ceroxylon quindiuense (H. Karst.) H. Wendl. Infections and infestations Malaria Sl P An I   18
Chamaedorea angustisecta Burret Dental health Toothache Rt B An I   19
Digestive system Abdominal pain Fl B Am I 19  
Appendicitis Fl B Am Ni 107  
Colic in babies Fl B An I   19
Diarrhea Fl B Am, An I, Ni 19, 78, 89, 90 19
Intestinal pain Fl B Am I 19, 78  
Stomach pain Fl B Am, An I, M   12, 19
Vomiting Fl B Am I 19, 78  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Fl P Am I   10
Fever Fl B An I   20
Headache Fl B An I   19
Indisposition Fr B Am I 7  
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Fl B An I   19
Muscular-skeletal system Hematoma Fl B Am I 123  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ph B, P Am, An I 119 18
Poisonings Insect bit Fl, Ns B Am I 3, 7, 109  
Snakebite antidote Fl, Ph, Rt, St B Am I, Ni 19, 99  
Worms poisonous bites Fl, Lf B Am I 3, 109  
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Childbirth problems Fl, Ph, St B Am I 19  
Reproductive system and sexual health Contraceptive Fl B Am, An I 123 19
Menstrual problems Fr, Ph B Am I 7, 19  
Respiratory system Cold Fl, Ph B Am I, Ni 98, 99, 101  
Cough Fl B An I   19
Flu Fl B Am I 7  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Skin infections Fl P Am I 120  
Wounds Fr B Am I 109  
Chamaedorea pauciflora Mart. Infections and infestations Lice Lf, St E Am I 77  
Chamaedorea pinnatifrons (Jacq.) Oerst. Digestive system Stomach pain Fl B An I   20
Vomiting Sd B Am I   14
Poisonings Insect bit Sl B Am I 7  
Respiratory system Cold Ph, Rt B Am I 101  
Cough Fl B Am I   14
Cocos nucifera L. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Fl C Ch Ni 102  
Hemorrhoids Fr P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Dental health Gum health Fr C Am Ni 50  
Toothache Rt C Ch A, I   21, 22
Digestive system Abdominal pain Fr B Am Ni 60  
Astringent Fr E Ch Ni 1  
Diarrhea Fl B, C, E, P Am, An, Ch A, I, M, Ni 50, 57 2, 7,11,17, 21, 22, 23
Intestinal pain Fr, Rt, Sd B, C Am, An I, M, Ni 7, 50, 47  
Jaundice Fr, Sd C Am Ni 50  
Liver pain Sd E An, Ch I, Ni 1, 67  
Purgative Sd C, E Am, Ch A, I, Ni 50, 129 21, 22, 24
Stomach pain Fr, Sd E, P Am, Ch M, Ni 1 6
Vomiting Sd C Am I   2
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Sd B, E, P Am, An, Ch I, M, Ni 1, 7, 14 5, 6, 11, 18
Headache Rt, Sd B Am I 3, 7  
Rehydration Fr, Sd C, E, P Am, An, Ch I, M   1, 3, 6, 17, 23
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Sd B, C, E Am, An, Ch I, M, Ni 50, 60 16, 24
Cholera Fr, Sd C Ch Ni 22  
Dengue Sd E Ch M   23
Malaria Sd P Am Ni 14  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr, Sd C, E Am, Ch A, I 104 1, 21, 24
Poisonings Antidote Fr, Sd C Am Ni 50  
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Abortive Rt P Am M 119 5
Antiabortive Fr C, P Am I 58, 84 5
Childbirth problems Fr, Lf, Pt B, P Am, An M, Ni 14, 57  
Galactogogue Fr, Sd P Am Ni 83  
Postpartum Sd P Am M   6
Vomiting Sd C Am Ni 50  
Reproductive system and sexual health Contraceptive Sd P Am Ni 118  
Gonorrhea Fr C Am Ni 50  
Menstrual problems Rt B, E Am, An I, Ni 60, 67  
Respiratory system Pneumonia Fr P Am Ni 14  
Sudorific Fr B An M 57  
Throat ache Fr C Ch A 74  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Burns Lf P Am I 38  
Hemorrhage Sd C Am I   1
Psoriasis Fr C Ch I   22
Skin infections Sd C Ch I   22
Wounds Sd E Ch Ni 1  
Urinary system Diuretic Fr E Ch Ni 1  
Inflammation of kidneys Fr, Sd E, P Am, An, Ch I, M 67 5, 7, 16, 23, 24
Prostate Sd C Am I   2
Urinary problems Fr B, E Am, Ch I 7 24
Veterinary Purgative Sd C Ch I   22
Copernicia alba Morong Blood and cardiovascular system Circulatory problems Sd B Am Ni 89  
Muscular-skeletal system Rheumatism and Arthritis Rt B Am Ni 89  
Desmoncus cirrhiferus A.H. Gentry & Zardini Infections and infestations Tonsillitis Rt C Ch A   21
Nervous system and mental health Psychosomatic Ph C Ch Ni 74  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Wounds St C Ch A   21
Desmoncus giganteus A.J. Hend. Blood and cardiovascular system Circulatory problems Ph P Am Ni 14  
Digestive system Liver pain Fr P Am M   6
Muscular-skeletal system Hernia St E Am Ni 18  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ph P Am Ni 14  
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys St P Am M   6
Desmoncus mitis Mart. Cultural diseases and disorders Bad Air St E Am I 12  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Rt E Am I 77  
Muscular-skeletal system Hernia Lf, St E Am I 79  
Respiratory system Cold Ns E Am I 77  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Lf, St E Am I 79  
Extraction of spines Ns C Am I   1
Desmoncus orthacanthos Mart. Digestive system Colic St E Am I 34  
Hepatitis Ph P Am Ni 14  
Intestinal pain Fr E Am I 12  
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Digestive system Unspecified Rt E Ch M   23
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Fr C Am Ni 50  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Skin infections Fr C Am Ni 50  
Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Ns C Ch A   21
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Fr C Am, Ch A, Ni 49, 74  
Not specified at all Unspecified Sd P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Respiratory system Asphyxia Lf C Ch Ni 51  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Wounds Sd C Am M 45  
Euterpe catinga Wallace Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Ns C Am I   2
Digestive system Diarrhea Rt C Am I   2
Hepatitis Rt P Am Ni 14  
Infections and infestations Malaria Rt C, P Am I, Ni 14, 106 2
Yellow Fever Fr, Rt P Am Ni 14  
Respiratory system Cough Rt C Am I 106  
Pneumonia Rt P Am Ni 14  
Euterpe oleracea Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Rt B, C Am, Ch A, I, M   2, 12, 21
Blood purification Fr, Rt C Ch A 110  
Digestive system Diarrhea Fr C Am I   2
Gallbladder Rt P Am M   6
Hepatitis Rt C Am I   1, 2
Liver pain Rt P Am M 119  
Stomach pain Rt C Am I   2
Endocrine system Diabetes Rt P Am M 119  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body weakness Rt P Am M   6
Unspecified Fr P Am M   6
Infections and infestations Aids Rt P Am M 119  
Malaria Rt C Am I   2
Yellow Fever Rt C Am I   2
Metabolic System and nutrition Vitamin Rt C Ch A 110  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr C, P Am I, M   1, 6
Other Cancer Rt P Am M 119  
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Galactogogue Rt P Am I   8
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Rt C Ch A 110  
Respiratory system Cough Fr C Am I   2
Flu Rt C Am I   1
Pneumonia Rt P Am M   7
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Rt P Am M   6
Euterpe precatoria Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Rt B, C, P Am I, M, Ni 3, 19, 43, 92, 107, 109 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Blood pressure Fr, Rt P Am M   5
Blood purification Rt P Am I 20, 124  
Circulatory problems Rt B Am Ni 60  
Dental health Tooth care Rt E Am I   3
Toothache Rt E Am I   3
Unspecified Rt C Am I 106 1
Digestive system Colic in babies Rt P Am M   6
Diarrhea Rt B, C, P Am I, M 7, 71, 78, 98, 106 1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 12
Gallbladder Fr, Rt P Am M   6
Gastritis Rt C, E Am I 111 1
Hepatitis Ph, Rt C, E, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 34, 68, 100, 127 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 15, 18
Inguinal Hernia Rt, Ns P Am M   7
Intestinal pain Rt B, P Am I, Ni 3, 7, 14, 78  
Liver pain Rt B, P Am I, M, Ni 3, 19, 82, 98, 124, 127 5, 6, 9
Purgative Rt C Am I 46  
Stomach pain Rt C, P Am I, M 100 2, 7
Vomiting Rt C Am I   2
Endocrine system Diabetes Rt B, C, P Am I, M 19 2, 5, 6
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Fr, Rt P Am M   6
Body weakness Rt B, P Am I, M   6, 9, 10, 13
Fever Fr, Rt C, P Am, An I, M   1, 5, 18
Infections and infestations Amoebas Ph, Rt B Am I, M   12, 13
Anthelmintic Rt B Am I 3, 7, 73, 98 14
Leishmania Rt C Am I   1
Malaria Rt C, E, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 34, 46, 58, 70, 100, 106 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 18
Tuberculosis Fr, Rt P Am I 20, 124  
Unspecified Rt P Am I, Ni 103 10
Yellow Fever Rt C, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 100 2, 18
Metabolic System and nutrition Vitamin Rt B Am I, Ni 19, 60, 99, 107  
Muscular-skeletal system Back pain Fr, Rt B, C, P Am, An I 5, 19, 20, 98, 120, 122, 124 2, 20
Bone pain Fr, Rt P Am I 120 6
Fractures Rt P Am I 20, 124  
Hematoma Rt P Am I 20  
Muscular pain Rt B Am Ni 92  
Edema Rt P Am I 20  
Rheumatism and Arthritis Rt B, C, P Am I, M 78, 122 1, 5, 6, 10
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr, Rt B, C, E, P Am, An I, M 4, 33, 24, 25, 61,63, 84, 95, 100, 108, 112, 126 1, 2, 6, 18
Other Cancer Fr, Rt, St, Ns C, P Am I, M   1, 6
Hair loss Rt E Am I 105  
Poisonings Insect bit Rt C Am I   1
Snakebite antidote Rt B, C Am I, Ni 92 1, 11, 13
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Abortive Rt, St C Am I   2
Antiabortive Rt P Am M   5, 6
Childbirth problems Rt P Am I, M 20 1
Reproductive system and sexual health Gonorrhea Rt P Am I   6
Menstrual problems Rt C Am I   1
Uterus infections Rt B, P Am I, M 98, 120, 124 6, 9, 10
Venereal diseases Rt C Am I   2
Respiratory system Bronchitis Rt P Am M   6
Chest pain Rt B Am I 92  
Cold Lf B, E Am I, Ni 3, 77, 99  
Cough Rt C, E Am I 77, 106 1, 2
Flu Ph, Rt C, E Am I 28, 84, 88 1, 2
Pneumonia Lf, Rt B, C, P Am I, M 3, 109, 124 1, 6, 13
Respiratory infections Rt, St B Am Ni 89, 90  
Throat ache Lf E Am I 77  
Unspecified Rt B Am I 17  
Sensory system Earache Lf C, P Am I, M   1, 5
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Empeine Fr, Rt B Am I 101  
Hemorrhage Fr B, C Am I 3 1
Swellings Fr, Rt B Am I 3  
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Rt B, C, P Am, An I, M, Ni 7, 20, 78, 82, 101, 120, 124, 127 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 15, 18
Prostate Rt, Ns P Am I, M 20 6, 9
Urinary infections Rt B, P Am I 5, 20  
Urinary problems Rt C Am I 46 1
Geonoma cuneata H. Wendl. ex Spruce Digestive system Intestinal pain Rt E Ch I 18  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ns E Ch I 29  
Geonoma deversa (Poit.) Kunth Cultural diseases and disorders Freight in children Lf, St B Am I 3  
Other Unspecified Lf C Am I 84  
Respiratory system Cough Pt E Am I 77  
Geonoma divisa H.E. Moore Cultural diseases and disorders Psychosomatic Fr C Ch I 49  
Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart. Cultural diseases and disorders Strengthen health Pt P Am I 120  
Geonoma macrostachys Mart. Digestive system Vomiting Lf, Rt P Am Ni 14  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fl P Am Ni 14  
Reproductive system and sexual health Menstrual problems Fl P Am Ni 14  
Geonoma poeppigiana Mart. Not specified at all Unspecified Pt C Am I 68  
Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth Dental health Caries Ns E Am I 18  
Geonoma triandra (Burret) Wess. Boer Muscular-skeletal system Muscular pain Ph C Ch I   22
Hyospathe elegans Mart. Dental health Caries Lf C, E Am I 12, 48  
Unspecified Ph C, E Am I 106, 117 2, 3
Digestive system Intestinal pain Ph, Ns P Am Ni 14  
Nausea Fl P Am Ni 14  
Stomach pain Rt E Am I   3
Vomiting Rt P Am Ni 14  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Headache Rt P Am Ni 14  
Respiratory system Flu Rt C Am I 48, 106  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Wounds Ph C Am I   2
Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Lf P Am I   8
Cultural diseases and disorders Bad Air Ph P Am I 76  
Freight Ns P Am I 120  
Psychosomatic Fl E Ch I   24
Digestive system Hepatitis St P Am Ni 14  
Liver pain Rt P Am I 120  
Purgative Ph E Am Ni 21  
Infections and infestations Malaria Ph E An Ni 21  
Muscular-skeletal system Fractures Ph P Am I 120  
Rheumatism and Arthritis Rt P An I 114  
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt E, P Am, An, Ch I, M 100, 112, 113 24
Poisonings Insect bit Ph, Rt, Ns B Am I 122  
Snakebite antidote Ph, Rt C Am I   1
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Childbirth problems Rt P Am M   6
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Rt C Am, Ch A, I 74, 106  
Respiratory system Cold Rt P Am I   10
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Cicatrizing Rt C Ch I   22
Skin infections St P Am I   10
Urinary system Diuretic Rt E Ch I   24
Iriartella setigera (Mart.) H. Wendl. Infections and infestations Lice Rt C Am I 48  
Warts Lf C Am I   2
Poisonings Insect bit Ls C Am I, Ni 84 1
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Skin spots Ph C Am I 49  
Iriartella stenocarpa Burret Digestive system Hepatitis Lf P Am Ni 14  
Infections and infestations Lice Rt C Am I 49  
Malaria Lf P Am Ni 14  
Tuberculosis Rt P Am Ni 14  
Lepidocaryum tenue Mart. Digestive system Hepatitis Rt C Am I   1
Liver pain Ph C Am Ni 84  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr C, P Am I, Ni 14 1
Headache Fr, Ph P Am Ni 14  
Infections and infestations Malaria Rt P Am Ni 14  
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt C Am I 95  
Poisonings Insect bit Ns C Am I 68  
Respiratory system Cough Ph C Am I   1
Flu Ph C Am I   1
Throat ache Ph P Am Ni 14  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Dry skin Rt P Am Ni 14  
Manicaria martiana Burret Muscular-skeletal system Rheumatism and Arthritis Fr C Am I   1
Manicaria saccifera Gaertn. Blood and cardiovascular system Blood pressure Sd C Ch A   21
Cultural diseases and disorders Evil eye Sd C Ch A   21
Dental health Caries Lf C Am I   1
Digestive system Gastritis Ph C Ch A   21
Purgative Sd C Ch A   21
Muscular-skeletal system Hematoma Sd C Ch A 129  
Inflammations Fr C Ch A 129  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr C Ch A, I   22, 22
Other Cancer Sd C Ch A   21
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Postpartum Sd C Ch A 74  
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Fl C Ch A   21
Respiratory system Asphyxia Sd C Ch Ni 51  
Cough Fr C Ch A, I   22, 22
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Hemorrhage Sd C Ch A, I   2
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Br C Ch A, I 74 21, 22
Prostate Sd C Am, Ch A, I   1, 21
Mauritia flexuosa L. f. Digestive system Hepatitis Sd C, P Am I, Ni 14, 68  
Liver pain Rt, Ns B Am M   12
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr C Am I 54  
Headache St P Am Ni 14  
Infections and infestations Malaria Fl P Am Ni 14  
Muscular-skeletal system Muscular pain Fr E Am I   4
Rheumatism and Arthritis Fr C Am I 54  
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt C, E Am I 25, 59, 112  
Other Cancer Fr, Ns P Am M 119  
Poisonings Snake bit antidote Rt P Am I   8
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Abortive Ph P Am Ni 118  
Galactogogue Sd E, P Am I, Ni 14, 93  
Reproductive system and sexual health Emmenagogue Ph, Rt P Am Ni 118  
Fertility Sd P Am I 120  
Menstrual problems Fr B Am M   12
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Fr B Am M   12
Wounds Fr B Am I, M   12
Mauritiella aculeata (Kunth) Burret Muscular-skeletal system Sprains Fr C Am I 117  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr P Am I 4  
Mauritiella armata (Mart.) Burret Cultural diseases and disorders Insanity Ns C Am I   1
Digestive system Diarrhea Rt C Am I   1
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Wounds Fr E Am I   3
Oenocarpus bacaba Mart. Digestive system Purgative St C Am I 46  
Infections and infestations Malaria Rt C Am I 46  
Poisonings Insect bit Rt P Am I 38  
Scorpion stings Ph C, P Am I 38, 46  
Respiratory system Respiratory infections Ph C Am I 84  
Urinary system Urinary problems Fr C Am I 46  
Oenocarpus balickii F. Kahn General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Rt B Am I   13
  Headache Fr B Am I   13
Infections and infestations Amoebas Fr B Am I   13
Respiratory system Cold Rt B Am I   13
Oenocarpus bataua Mart. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Fr E Ch I   24
Blood purification Fr P Am M 11  
Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Fr B Am, An I   14, 20
Digestive system Colic Fr, Sd B An I   19
Diarrhea Fr C, E, P Am I, M, Ni 2, 14, 18, 40, 59, 65, 100, 106 2, 9
Digestion (children) Fl, Fr, Rt, Sd P Am Ni 11  
Gallbladder Fr B Am M   12
Hepatitis Fr P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Intestinal pain Ph, Rt B, E, P Am I, Ni 2, 14, 78  
Liver pain Fr, St B, E, P Am, Ch I 19, 120 24
Purgative Fr, Ph, Sd B, C, E, P Am I, M, Ni 6, 11, 15, 66, 84, 128 6, 12
Stomach pain Fr, Sd B, E Am I, Ni 40, 107  
Endocrine system Diabetes Fr, Rt B, P Am I, Ni 60, 120  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Fr, Rt B, E Am, An I, M 66 12, 14, 19
Fever Fr, Rt B, P Am, An I, M, Ni 14, 19, 99, 107, 122 9, 12, 13, 14, 19
Headache Fr, Ph, Rt, Sd B, E Am I 18, 19, 40, 59, 77 13
Indisposition Fr, Rt, Sd B Am I 19  
Tiredness Sd B Am I 19  
Infections and infestations Amoebas Sd B Am I, Ni 60 13
Anthelmintic Fr, Rt E Am I 18, 40, 59, 88  
Lice Fr, Rt B Am I 123  
Malaria Sd C, P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100, 106, 120  
Smallpox Fr, Ph, Rt, Sd B Am I 19  
Tuberculosis Sd C, E Am I, Ni 53, 66, 84, 102, 105, 115  
Unspecified Fr, Sd B, P Am I, Ni 98, 103  
Yellow Fever Sd P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Metabolic System and nutrition Vitamin Rt E Am I 2  
Muscular-skeletal system Muscular pain Fr B, P Am I, Ni 37, 78  
Rheumatism and Arthritis Fr B, C, E, P Am I, M 11, 59, 66, 123 1, 14
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr, Sd B, C, E Am, An I, M, Ni 21, 24, 25, 27, 31, 33, 47, 55, 61, 86, 94, 113 2
Other Cancer Fr, Lf, Rt, Sd, Ns P Am I 120  
Poisonings Scorpion stings Fr C Am I   2
Snakebite antidote Ph, Sd E, P Am I 11, 34  
Pregnancy, birth and puerperium Childbirth problems Rt, Sd P Am M 11  
Galactogogue Fr E Am I 66  
Postpartum Ph B An I   20
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Rt E Ch I   24
Respiratory system Asthma Fr C, E Am I 56, 59, 66  
Bronchitis Fr, Sd C, E, P Am I, M, Ni 11, 15, 50, 59, 66  
Cold Fr B, C, E, P Am, An I, M, Ni 19, 50, 59, 66, 77, 101, 107 10, 12, 19
Cough Fr, Rt B, C, E, P Am I, M, Ni 2, 7, 11, 15, 75, 98, 106 2
Flu Fr, Rt, Sd B, C, E Am I, Ni 2, 50, 123 2
Pertussis Fr, Sd C Am I 106  
Pneumonia Sd B, C, E, P Am, Ch A, I, M, Ni 14, 15, 19, 44, 50, 74, 84, 85, 107, 123 9
Respiratory infections Fr, Rt, Sd B, C, E, P Am, An I, Ni 2, 14, 84, 59, 99 15
Throat ache Fr, St C Am I 6, 84  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Fr, Sd B Am I 19  
Burns Sd B, E, P Am I 19, 111 3, 10
Skin infections Fr, Sd, Ns E Am I 66  
Skin spots Fr B Am I 122  
Swellings Fr B Am I 19  
Wounds Sd B Am I, M 19 12
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Fr, Sd B Am I   14
Oenocarpus mapora H. Karst. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Rt P Am I   8
Cultural diseases and disorders Psychosomatic Ph C Ch I 22  
Digestive system Diarrhea Lf C, P Am I, Ni 14, 106  
Hepatitis Rt P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Intestinal pain Rt P Am Ni 14  
Purgative Fr P Am I 11  
Endocrine system Diabetes Fr P Am M 119  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Rt B Am I 78  
Headache Fr B Am I   13
Infections and infestations Amoebas Fr B Am I   13
Malaria Rt C, P Am I, Ni 14, 84  
Muscular-skeletal system Back pain Fr, Rt P Am Ni 14  
Bone pain Ls P An I   18
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt B, P Am I 17 8
Poisonings Scorpion stings Ph, Ns C Am I 106  
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Antiabortive Ph P Am I   8
Respiratory system Cough Fr C, P Am I, Ni 14, 84, 106  
Pertussis Fr, Rt C Am I 106  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Burns Sd B Am Ni 107  
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Fr C Ch A   21
Pholidostachys dactyloides H.E. Moore Skin and subcutaneous tissue Wounds Fr C Ch I   22
Pholidostachys synanthera (Mart.) H.E. Moore Skin and subcutaneous tissue Burns Lf E An Ni 18  
Phytelephas aequatorialis Spruce Digestive system Gastritis Lr E Ch I 32  
Purgative Sd E Ch I   24
Reproductive system and sexual health Inflammation of ovaries Sd E Ch I 32  
Respiratory system Cough Fr E An M   17
Sensory system To clear the vision Sd E Ch I 32  
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Sd E An, Ch I, M 125 17, 24
Urinary problems Sd E An, Ch I, M   17, 24
Phytelephas macrocarpa Ruiz & Pav. Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Sd P Am I 120  
Witchcraft Sd C Ch I   22
Dental health Unspecified Sd B Am M   12
Digestive system Stomach pain Sd P Am I 120  
Vomiting Sd C Am I   2
Endocrine system Diabetes Sd P Am M, Ni 80, 81, 119  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Fr, Sd P Am M   7
Not specified at all Unspecified Sd P Am I 4  
Poisonings Scorpion stings Ns C Am I 106  
Snake bit antidote Ph C Am I 106  
Pregnancy, birth and puerperal Galactogogue Sd P Am I   8
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Sd P Am I 120  
Sensory system Eye inflammation Fl P Am I 120 5
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Wounds Sd P Am I 120  
Urinary system Diuretic Rt C Ch A 74  
Inflammation of kidneys Rt P Am I 120  
Phytelephas tenuicaulis (Barfod) A.J. Hend. Digestive system Abdominal pain Sd P Am Ni 14  
Hepatitis Sd P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Fever Ph P Am Ni 14  
Infections and infestations Malaria Sd P Am I, M, Ni 14, 100  
Not specified at all Unspecified Ph E Am I 27, 33  
Poisonings Insect bit Rt E Am I 34  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Skin infections Rt P Am Ni 14  
Prestoea acuminata (Willd.) H.E. Moore Not specified at all Unspecified Sd C An I   15
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Rt C An I   15
Prestoea schultzeana (Burret) H.E. Moore Dental health Toothache Rt E Am I 34  
Digestive system Hepatitis Rt E Am I 34  
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt E Am I 30, 33  
Respiratory system Cold Ph, Rt E Am I 77  
Cough Rt E Am I 77  
Throat ache Rt E Am I 77  
Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F. Cook Digestive system Diarrhea Rt P An Ni 41  
Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Lf P An Ni 41  
Nervous system and mental health Seizures Lf P An Ni 41  
Socratea exorrhiza (Mart.) H. Wendl. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Lf B, P Am I, M   8, 12
Cultural diseases and disorders Freight Ph, Rt B, P Am, An I 120 19
Physically strengthen Sl, Rt P Am I 120  
Digestive system Hepatitis Rt C, P Am, An I, M, Ni 8, 14, 100 15
Nausea Ph, Rt P Am Ni 14  
Purgative Ph, Rt E, P Am, An I 35 18
Stomach pain Ph, Rt B, P Am, An I   8, 20
Vomiting Sl, Rt P Am Ni 14  
Endocrine system Diabetes Ph, Rt P Am M   6
General ailments with unspecific symptoms Body pain Rt B An I   19
Fever Rt B Am Ni 89  
Infections and infestations Leishmania Fr, St B, P Am, An I, M 19 5, 12, 19
Muscular-skeletal system Knee pain Rt E Am I 77  
Muscular pain Rt C Am I   1
Not specified at all Unspecified Rt B, C, E, P Am, An I, M 17, 23, 52, 55, 75, 109, 112, 113  
Poisonings Insect bit Fr, Ph, Rt, St, Ns B, C, P Am I, M 122 1, 5
Ray stings Ph, Rt C Am I   1
Snake bit antidote Rt B, C, E, P Am, An I, M, Ni 19, 21, 70 1, 8
Worms poisonous bites Ph, Rt B Am I 73  
Reproductive system and sexual health Fertility Rt C Am I 106  
Respiratory system Pneumonia Rt P Am I   10
Skin and subcutaneous tissue Abscesses Rt B Am, An I 19, 78 8, 12
Botfly infection Rt C Am I   1
Psoriasis Rt B Am I 19  
Skin infections Rt B, P Am I 5 10
Wounds Rt, St B Am I 19, 101  
Veterinary Anthelmintic Rt C Am I   1
Botfly infection St C Am I   1
Scabies Rt B Am I 19, 78  
Syagrus sancona (Kunth) H. Karst. Blood and cardiovascular system Anemia Rt P Am I   8
Wettinia aequalis (O.F. Cook & Doyle) R. Bernal Dental health Unspecified Ph P Ch I   24
Metabolic System and nutrition Cholesterol Fr P Ch I   24
Urinary system Inflammation of kidneys Fr P Ch I   24
Wettinia augusta Poepp. & Endl. Infections and infestations Lice Fr C Am I 48  
Wettinia maynensis Spruce Infections and infestations Anthelmintic Lf P Am, An I 13, 39  
Not specified at all Unspecified Fr, Ph P Am I 30  
  1. a 1: Acosta-Solís, 1971; 2: Aguilar, 2006; 3: Aguirre, 2006; 4: Albán, 1994; 5: Alexiades, 1999; 6: Antolinez, 1999; 7: Armesilla, 2006; 8: Ayala, 1984; 9: Báez 1998; 10: Báez & Backevall, 1998; 11: Balick, 1986; 12: Balslev & Barfod, 1987; 13: Balslev et al., 1997; 14: Balslev et al., 2008; 15: Barriga, 1994; 16: Bernal et al., 2010; 17: Boom, 1986; 18: Borchsenius et al., 1998; 19: Bourdy, 1999; 20: Bourdy et al., 2008; 21: Byg & Balslev, 2004; 22: Caballero, 1995; 23: Cárdenas & Ramírez, 2004; 24: Cárdenas et al. 2002; 25: Castaño-Arboleda et al., 2007; 26: Cerón, 1995; 27: Cerón, 2003; 28: Cerón & Montalvo, 1998; 29: Cerón & Montalvo, 2002; 30: Cerón & Reyes, 2007a; 31: Cerón & Reyes, 2007b: 32: Cerón et al., 2004; 33: Cerón et al., 2005; 34: Cerón et al., 2011; 35: Cerón et al., 2012; 36: Cerro et al., 2003; 37: Chávez, 1996; 38: Cornejo, 1998; 39: Cruz et al., 2009; 40: Davis & Yost, 1983; 41: DeFeo, 1992; 42: Denevan & Treacy, 1987; 43: Desmarchelier et al., 1996; 44: Dugand, 1961; 45: Etupiñan-Gonzáles & Jimenéz-Escobar, 2010; 46: Forero, 2005; 47: Frausin et al., 2010; 48: Galeano, 1992; 49: Galeano & Bernal, 2010; 50: García Barriga, 1974; 51: García Cossio et al., 2002; 52: García et al., 1996; 53: Garzón, 1985; 54: Garzón & Macuritofe, 1992; 55: Giraldo-B, 2004; 56: Giraldo-Tafur, 1995; 57: Girault, 1987; 58: Glenboski, 1983; 59: Gomez et al., 1996; 60: Gutiérrez-Vásquez & Peralta, 2001; 61: Henkemans, 2001; 62: Hinojosa, 1991; 63: Huertas, 2007; 64: Iglesias, 1987; 65: Iglesias, 1989; 66: Játiva & Alarcón, 1994; 67: Kothari, 1993; 68: Kronik, 1999; 69: Kvist et al., 1998; 70: Kvist et al., 2001; 71: La Rotta et al., 1987; 72: La Rotta, 1989; 73: Langevin, 2002; 74: Ledezma. R. E, 2011; 75: López et al. 1998; 76: Luziatelli et al., 2010; 77: Macía, 2004; 78: Macía, unpubl.; 79: Marles et al., 1988; 80: Mejía, 1983; 81: Mejía, 1988b; 82: Mejía, 1992; 83: Mejía & Rengifo, 2000; 84: Mesa, 2011; 85: Miller, 2002; 86: Miranda et al., 2009; 87: Mollinedo, 2000; 88: Mondragón & Smith, 1997; 89: Moraes, 2004; 90: Moraes et al., 1995; 91: Moraes et al., 1996; 92: Moreno Suárez & Moreno Suárez, 2006; 93: Ojeda, 1994; 94: Ortiz Gómez, 1989; 95: Ortiz, 1994; 96: Pacheco et al., 1998; 97: Paniagua-Zambrana, 1998; 98: Paniagua-Zambrana, 2001 ; 99: Paniagua-Zambrana, 2005; 100: Paniagua-Zambrana, 2005b; 101: Paniagua Zambrana et al., unpubl.; 102: Pérez-Arbeláez, 1956; 103: Pérez 2002; 104: Pino & Valois, 2004; 105: Ponce, 1992: 106: Prado, 2008: 107: Proctor 1992: 108: Programa de Desarrollo Alternativo en Colombia, UNDCP-UNOPS, 1995; 109: Quintana & Vargas, 1995; 110: Restrepo, 1996; 111: San Sebastián, 1995; 112: Sánchez 2005; 113: Santín Luna, 2004; 114: Sanz-Biset et al., 2009; 115: Schultes, 1951; 116: Schultes, 1974; 117: Schultes & Raffauf, 1990; 118: Seoane & Soplín, 1999: 119: Silva & García, 1997; 120: Sosnowska et al., 2010; 121: Telléz, 1979; 122: Thomas & Vandebroek, 2006; 123: Ticona, 2001; 124: Valadeau et al., 2010; 125: Van den Eynden et al., 2004; 126: Vargas, 1997; 127: Vásquez 1992; 128: Vásquez and Vásquez 1998; 129: Zuluaga, 2003
  2. bNumbers of localities follow Appendix 1
  3. Plant parts: Br Bract, Fl Flower, Fr Fruit, Lf Entire leaf, Ls Leaf sheath, Lr Leaf rachis, Ph Palm heart, Pt Petiole, Rt Root, Sd Seed, Sl Spear leaf, Sp Spine, St Stem, Ns Not specified
  4. Ecoregions: Am Amazon, An Andes, Ch Chocó
  5. Countries: B Bolivia, C Colombia, E Ecuador, P Peru. Human groups: A Afro-American, I Indigenous, M Mestizo, Ni Not identified.